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metallographic specimen

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... The two ends are smooth and parallel to one another and normal to the expansion axis. The as-sawed surface from a metallographic saw is generally sufficiently smooth, as long as the sawed ends are without burrs. The specimen is homogeneous, of uniform cross section, and free of flaws, cracks, notches...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., that the specimen be loaded into the analytical chamber such that an adequate conduction path for electrons exists. Mounted metallographic specimens cannot be analyzed due to lack of conductivity and the outgassing of the embedding matrix. To alleviate this problem, the mounting material must be a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... interlaboratory round-robins conducted by a number of mill metallographers doing such work regularly ( Ref 50 ). Raters often misidentified A- and C-type inclusions, and the severity ratings for the same specimens often covered the full severity range. Manual measurement of the volume fraction of inclusions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) techniques are used to characterize samples in the form of loose powders, aggregates of finely divided material or polycrystalline specimens. This article provides a detailed account of XRPD. It begins with a discussion on XRPD instrumentation and the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... and compositional information regarding the specimen. The SEM was invented in 1937 ( Ref 1 ) and was first commercialized in 1965 ( Ref 2 ). There have been continual improvements in SEM resolution, dependability, ease of operation, and reduction in instrument size. Scanning electron microscopes are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... microstructure of a specimen. Also, all etchants are not equal, and nital, used probably over 90% of the time by metallographers studying iron and steel specimens, is frequently not the optimal reagent for viewing the structure. Fig. 56 Microstructure of as-polished titanium diboride viewed using (a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... diffraction crystallographic texture AUTOMATED ELECTRON BACKSCATTER DIFFRACTION (EBSD) is a technique that allows the crystallography of a sample to be determined in a suitably equipped scanning electron microscope (SEM). In brief, a prepared specimen that is flat and free from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... surface reactions, deposition and sputter cleaning, and specimen fracture. The vacuum system may also be equipped with special-purpose auxiliary equipment such as a fracture attachment for in situ fracture studies, an evaporation unit for thin-film deposition, and a hot/cold stage to conduct elevated...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., either manually or by the use of image analyzers. Preparation of metallographic specimens generally requires five major operations: sectioning, mounting, grinding, chemical polishing, and etching. The article provides information on the principles of technique selection in mechanical polishing, and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... alloys, refractory metals and alloys, zinc and zinc alloys, and wrought heat-resisting alloys. The preparation of specimens for metallographic technique includes operations such as sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing, and etching of nonferrous metals and alloys. The article contains tables that...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Proper sectioning of the surface to be examined is a very important step in preparing steel specimens. The first step in preventing damage to the metallurgical structure is to minimize the amount of sectioning that is done. This article discusses the various metallographic techniques...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... photography of fractured parts and surfaces, and describes some of the more common fractographic features revealed by light microscopy, including tensile-fracture surface marks in unnotched specimens, fatigue marks, and structural discontinuities within the metal. The article also explains how to interpret...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... subsurface (5 to 10 μm) defects and the imaging of metallographic features of unpolished samples. The advent of large scanning electron microscope specimen chambers has permitted design of devices for the in situ analysis of mechanical behavior, such as fatigue crack initiation and propagation studies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... intergranular and to determine if the fracture part is specific to any phase or constituent present. Although such specimens can be examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), light microscopy is more efficient for such work, and certain information, such as the color or polarization response of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... fractographs with illustrations. cleaning fractograph fracture surface scanning electron microscopy specimen replication transmission electron microscopy THE APPLICATION of the transmission electron microscope to the study of fracture surfaces and related phenomena made it possible to obtain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... commonly seen in the fcc lattice. The fcc materials mechanically twin only with considerable difficulty, because of the substantial opportunities for slip. Alternatively, hcp materials mechanically twin more easily; so easily, in fact, that sometimes mechanical polishing of a metallographic specimen can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... concentrations of lead. 2400× Figure 843 shows the surface of a dendritic stress-rupture fracture in a cast specimen of IN-100 nickel-base alloy that was annealed at 1175 °C (2150 °F) and loaded at 980 °C (1800 °F) to a tensile stress of 97 MPa (14 ksi). The specimen broke after 49 h of testing. Figure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... images that can be used to determine grain size, phase distribution, or porosity. This is particularly true when interfacial structures are to be examined. The importance of good specimen preparation for all structural analysis techniques cannot be overemphasized. In many cases, apparently featureless...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003988
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... 69 ). The directionality of wrought steel is illustrated in Table 4 . Table 4 Comparison of transverse and longitudinal mechanical properties of wrought steels Material Specimen orientation Ultimate tensile strength Yield strength, 0.2% offset Impact energy Fatigue endurance limit...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... thermocouple measurements can help to assess the uniformity of a heat treat furnace or aging oven as well as part-racking practices. Like any measurement, several factors can be sources of error. Several sources of error can be related to the geometry of the specimen, as described briefly in the following...