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metallographic samples

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Metallographic examination is one of the most important procedures used by metallurgists in failure analysis. Typically, the light microscope (LM) is used to assess the nature of the material microstructure and its influence on the failure mechanism. Microstructural examination can be...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... statisticians, can rarely be performed by metallographers. Instead, systematically chosen test locations are employed based on convenience in sampling. In failure studies, specimens are usually removed to study the origin of the failure, to examine highly stressed areas, and to examine secondary cracks. All...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article describes the metallographic technique for nonferrous metals and special-purpose alloys. These include aluminum alloys, copper and copper alloys, lead and lead alloys, magnesium alloys, nickel and nickel alloys, magnetic alloys, tin and tin alloys, titanium and titanium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract Heat treatment of aluminum alloys is assessed by various quality-assurance methods that include metallographic examination, hardness measurements, mechanical property tests, corrosion-resistance tests, and electrical conductivity testing. The use of hardness measurements in the quality...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... processes involved in the selection of metallurgical samples, the preparation and examination of metallographic specimens in failure analysis, and the analysis and interpretation of microstructures. Examination and evaluation of polymers and ceramic materials in failure analysis are also briefly discussed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...; fatigue and creep fractures; simultaneous metallographic-fractographic evaluation; and effect of thermal cycling on fatigue fracture. creep fracture fatigue fracture gas-turbine wheel hydrogen-embrittlement fracture nickel-base superalloys Hydrogen-embrittlement fracture of a single-cyrstal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... experimental techniques for microstructural characterization include metallographic technique, X-ray diffraction, electron, microscopies, and porosimetry. coating structure electrodeposition electron microscopy metallographic technique microstructural characterization plasma spraying porosimetry...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003988
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... , Ref 20 , Ref 21 , Ref 22 ). Samples of powders intended for forging applications are repress powder forged under closely controlled laboratory conditions. The resulting compacts are sectioned and prepared for metallographic examination. The inclusion assessment technique involves the use of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... metallographic examination can be accommodated in powder diffractometers, but some form of sample preparation will usually be necessary. Preparation will depend on the equipment available and the nature of the examination. A diffraction pattern is usually displayed as a graph of intensity versus interplanar...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... cause what appears to be sample drift to occur. Insulators and metallographically mounted samples are most often coated with a thin conductive layer to prevent charging of the sample. The mounting material for metallographic samples may also charge from the interaction with scattered electrons. Even...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... larger spheres, while spheres of all sizes are in focus with the SEM due to better depth of field. The SEM is generally inferior to the OM for routine examination of samples prepared using standard metallographic techniques when examined at magnifications less than 300 to 400×. Standard...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... corrosion in small components and characterizing corrosion products Resolving fine microstructural features on polished and etched metallographic samples Performing qualitative and semi-quantitative elemental analyses on microstructural features, contaminant particles, etc. Identifying...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... by a combination of factors. For example, stress-corrosion cracking requires stress AND a corrosive agent AND a susceptible material. The guidelines useful for selecting samples for SEM examination are: SEM examination is generally performed before metallographic examination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... low magnifications to average out phase separations, precipitates, inclusions, and so on. With the appropriate calibration, standard, and homogeneous polished metallographic sample mounted in a conductive mount, semiquantitative data can be obtained with limitations on lighter elements. Guidance for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article reviews many commonly used stereological counting measurements and the relationships based on these parameters. The discussion covers the processes involved in sampling and specimen preparation. Quantitative microstructural measurements are described including volume...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... cleaning can contaminate trace corrosion products. Carefully label all specimens. If parts cannot be removed, techniques exist to make replicas of fracture origins, which can be examined in the laboratory. Parts also can be prepared for metallographic examination and examined in the field. Samples can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005940
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... for the investigation of larger numbers of parameters by a limited number of samples, and can be structured into system analysis, test strategy, test procedure, and test evaluation. Level 2 focuses on understanding the distortion mechanisms by using the concept of distortion potential and its carriers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., fabrication methods, sample preparation, bulk/elemental characterization methods, microstructural characterization methods, surface characterization methods, and electronic characterization methods. semiconductor characterization This article introduces various techniques commonly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... continuously across the entire surface as opposed, for example, to the point-by-point registration obtained by stereophotogrammetry measurements ( Ref 4 ). With the sample in a metallographic mount, the fracture path and underlying microstructure are revealed in relation to each other, and the standard...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... must be developed and followed for each coating. To ensure that the process is in control, it is common practice to coat a small sample using a standard set of parameters (standoff, traverse rate, angle of deposition, etc.) for metallographic examination of the coating before coating a part. The cross...