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metallographic sample preparation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the fundamentals of titanium metallographic sample preparation. Representative micrographs are presented for each class of titanium alloys, including unalloyed titanium, alpha alloys, alpha-beta alloys, and beta titanium alloys. The article provides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
.... It provides several suggestions to promote and encourage the safety of those performing metallographic preparation and analysis. chemical etching drying ferrous powders grinding metallic specimens metallographic analysis metallographic preparation mounting polishing powder metallurgy sample...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... and coated steels, such as sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing, and etching, are discussed. The article also reviews the simple and proven manual sample preparation techniques of coated steel specimens. coated steel etching grinding low-carbon steel metallic coatings metallographic specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003751
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of field metallography and describes the important material characteristics and other aspects to be considered before performing any metallographic procedure. It investigates the various stages of sample preparation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003748
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... This article discusses the mechanism, operating procedure, advantages, and limitations of chemical and electrolytic polishing of samples for metallographic preparation. It provides information on the specimen preparation, apparatus used, and safety precautions to be followed during the polishing process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
...Abstract Abstract The metallographic specimen preparation process for microstructural investigations of cast iron specimens usually consists of five stages: sampling, cold or hot mounting, grinding, polishing, and etching with a suitable etchant to reveal the microstructure. This article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... characterization microstructural analysis microstructure permanent magnets polarization analysis sample preparation scanning electron microscopy soft magnetic materials MAGNETIC MATERIAL MICROSTRUCTURES are studied using a wide range of metallographic techniques, both for conventional microscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the metallographic specimen preparation procedures for cast iron test samples, including mounting, grinding, polishing, and etching. It discusses the makeup and use of black-and-white and selective color etchants and where one might be preferred over...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... and material behavior. It covers the steps involved in sample preparation, including sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing, and etching, and presents several examples of macro and microanalysis on various metals and alloys. macroanalysis metallographic sectioning microanalysis optical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... It covers the processes involved in the selection of metallurgical samples, the preparation and examination of metallographic specimens in failure analysis, and the analysis and interpretation of microstructures. Examination and evaluation of polymers and ceramic materials in failure analysis are also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...Abstract Abstract This article provides a review of metallographic procedures and techniques for analyzing the microstructure of fusion welded joints. It discusses sample preparation, the use of backing plates, and common sectioning methods. It identifies the various types of defects that can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...Abstract Abstract This article explains how to prepare precious metal test samples for metallographic examination. It discusses cutting, mounting, grinding, polishing, and etching and addresses some of the challenges of working with small, relatively soft specimens. It includes dozens...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003720
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... with the advent of electron microscopy, the light microscope is still the first and most important examination device in metallography. Sometimes the contrast in a microstructure is inadequate with a SEM under 500×, while it is highly visible with a basic light microscope and a properly prepared sample. Indeed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... large parts, can be examined for grain-size variations, weld integrity, porosity, shrinkage, cavities, cracks, flow lines, and other macrostructural features. Microstructural Examination In microstructural examination, the sample must be in the proper metallographically prepared condition, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... and a cotton swab, then rinsed with alcohol and dried under a warm air blast. Automatic Grinding and Polishing Automatic metallographic preparation is appropriate for high-volume sample production intended for general microstructure examination. Techniques vary according to the type of machine used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... described in ASTM E 3 will do an adequate job of producing quality metallographic specimens ( Ref 9 ). Table 2 outlines a typical metallographic sample preparation methodology. Because these alloys are corrosion resistant, etching techniques are more difficult and meticulous than carbon steels. Table 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... an automatic machine. A standard practice of metallographic sample preparation of cemented carbides is given in ASTM B 665 procedure ( Ref 2 ). Specimen Preparation Sectioning Cemented carbides are cut into sizes suitable for metallography by high-speed cutoff machines. Cutting wheels should be metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003746
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... in the preparation of metallographic specimens. The other operations, discussed in subsequent articles, include mounting (not always performed), grinding/polishing, etching (not always performed), and examination of the specimen. Metallurgical sectioning may also be used to prepare specimens for tests other than...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... The article provides information on how to reveal the various constituents using proven metallographic procedures for both macrostructural and microstructural examination. Emphasis is placed on the specimen preparation procedures such as sectioning, mounting, grinding, and polishing. The article illustrates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... metallographic sectioning and polishing techniques should produce adequate samples for EBSD. The standard preparation steps leading up to the final polishing step include sectioning, mounting, and grinding; these should be conducted in a manner to minimize extensive subsurface preparation-induced damage...