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metallographic sample preparation

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., either manually or by the use of image analyzers. Preparation of metallographic specimens generally requires five major operations: sectioning, mounting, grinding, chemical polishing, and etching. The article provides information on the principles of technique selection in mechanical polishing, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... performed with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) over the same magnification range as the LM, but examination with the latter is more efficient. This article describes the major operations in the preparation of metallographic specimens, namely sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing, and etching. The...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... alloys, refractory metals and alloys, zinc and zinc alloys, and wrought heat-resisting alloys. The preparation of specimens for metallographic technique includes operations such as sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing, and etching of nonferrous metals and alloys. The article contains tables that...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... processes involved in the selection of metallurgical samples, the preparation and examination of metallographic specimens in failure analysis, and the analysis and interpretation of microstructures. Examination and evaluation of polymers and ceramic materials in failure analysis are also briefly discussed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... larger spheres, while spheres of all sizes are in focus with the SEM due to better depth of field. The SEM is generally inferior to the OM for routine examination of samples prepared using standard metallographic techniques when examined at magnifications less than 300 to 400×. Standard...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... no sample preparation ( Ref 31 ). However, most samples will require some sample preparation. In most cases, standard careful metallographic sectioning and polishing techniques should produce adequate samples for EBSD. The standard preparation steps leading up to the final polishing step include...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... analysis. For coatings, many of the techniques are applicable, but somewhat more care must be taken in preparing representative samples, because the volume of material to be investigated is relatively small. Table 1 identifies the most important microstructural features and defines what techniques can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003988
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... , Ref 20 , Ref 21 , Ref 22 ). Samples of powders intended for forging applications are repress powder forged under closely controlled laboratory conditions. The resulting compacts are sectioned and prepared for metallographic examination. The inclusion assessment technique involves the use of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article reviews many commonly used stereological counting measurements and the relationships based on these parameters. The discussion covers the processes involved in sampling and specimen preparation. Quantitative microstructural measurements are described including volume...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., fabrication methods, sample preparation, bulk/elemental characterization methods, microstructural characterization methods, surface characterization methods, and electronic characterization methods. semiconductor characterization This article introduces various techniques commonly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... metallographic examination can be accommodated in powder diffractometers, but some form of sample preparation will usually be necessary. Preparation will depend on the equipment available and the nature of the examination. A diffraction pattern is usually displayed as a graph of intensity versus interplanar...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... subsurface (5 to 10 μm) defects and the imaging of metallographic features of unpolished samples. The advent of large scanning electron microscope specimen chambers has permitted design of devices for the in situ analysis of mechanical behavior, such as fatigue crack initiation and propagation studies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... must be developed and followed for each coating. To ensure that the process is in control, it is common practice to coat a small sample using a standard set of parameters (standoff, traverse rate, angle of deposition, etc.) for metallographic examination of the coating before coating a part. The cross...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... high vacuum levels and therefore are backed by a conventional mechanical rotary or dry pump that generates a vacuum level of approximately 10 −3 torr (1.33 × 10 −3 mbar). In most instruments, there is also a sample preparation chamber prior to the analytical chamber for introducing the sample to air...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... affecting forgeability. It describes the forging techniques, equipment, and common processing elements associated with titanium alloy forging. The processing elements include the preparation of forging stock, preheating of the stock, die heating, lubrication, forging process, trimming and repair, cleaning...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... The discussion covers the general principles, equipment used, specimen preparation process, calibration conditions, data analysis steps, and examples of the applications and interpretation of TMA. Thermomechanical analysis Thermomechanical analysis (TMA) is a thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... useful and relevant information to be obtained. The discussion covers the principles and approaches in failure analysis work, objectives and scopes of failure analysis, the planning stages for failure analysis, the preparation of a protocol for a failure analysis, practices used by failure analysts, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... control, equipment, surface preparation, and crack patterns and other characteristics of hard chromium plating. It offers recommendations for the design and use of plating racks, describes the problems encountered in hard chromium plating, and their corrective procedures. The article provides information...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... sections of fracture surfaces have been utilized ( Ref 1 , 2 ) as will be discussed below. Thin-foil preparation from bulk samples is discussed in the article “Analytical Transmission Electron Microscopy” in Volume 10 of ASM Handbook, formerly 9th Edition Metals Handbook. A fracture surface can be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... metallography sample preparation scanning electron microscope VISUAL EXAMINATION, using the unaided eye or low-power optical magnifier, is typically one of the first steps in a failure investigation. This subject is covered in the article “Visual Examination and Photography in Failure Analysis” in this...