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metallographic replication

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003751
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... replication FIELD METALLOGRAPHIC PROCEDURES are performed “on location” or in the “field” on components that are too large to bring to the metallographic laboratory. Generally, these components are still being used in service or must be returned to service and cannot be destructively sectioned...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... fractographs with illustrations. cleaning fractograph fracture surface scanning electron microscopy specimen replication transmission electron microscopy THE APPLICATION of the transmission electron microscope to the study of fracture surfaces and related phenomena made it possible to obtain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract Archaeometallurgists use metallography to reveal and interpret the microstructures of objects, in conjunction with the results of their chemical analyses and microanalyses. This article describes a number of special problems that occur while performing metallographic analyses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0006847
EISBN: 978-1-62708-387-4
... that can be created by replication of the fracture surface and handling of the replica. The SEM has become the most common instrument to study fracture surfaces today (2021). Applications include high-resolution imaging and local composition analysis using energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides a discussion on the metallographic techniques used for failure analysis, and on fracture examination in materials, with illustrations. It discusses various metallographic specimen preparation techniques, namely, sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003746
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract This article describes the sectioning process, some general practices, common tools, and guidelines on how to select a cutting tool for a given metallographic sectioning operation. It provides a discussion on the consumable-abrasive cutting and nonconsumable-abrasive cutting methods...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article outlines the basic steps to be followed and the range of techniques available for failure analysis, namely, background data assembling, visual examination, microfractography, chemical analysis, metallographic examination, electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003661
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., and electrochemical noise measurements. The visual examination, metallographic examination, and nondestructive inspection of pits are discussed. The article reviews the procedures for the use of standard charts, metal penetration, statistical analysis, and loss in mechanical properties to quantify the severity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... relationships for low-alloy steels. These correlations enable selection of the appropriate Larson-Miller plot corresponding to a given hardness level, which can be used to calculate the remaining life. Metallographic Replication Methods Metallographic replication methods have been developed that can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is available for either mechanical or electrolytic polishing. Portable microscopes can be used to view the microstructures and take micrographs. In some cases, it may be difficult to examine the polished area with the microscope. In these cases, the metallographer must resort to replication techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... damage. The usual method of metallographic investigation involves cutting large pieces from components, which thus renders the component unfit for service. In contrast, surface replication allows examination of microstructural damage without cutting sections from the component. Plastic replicas lend...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical metallographic images should be identified with unique numbers or letters to record the provenance of the evidence and the position regarding the orientation and shape of the original part. Selection and Cleaning of Samples Selection of Samples for SEM...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003720
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... small for resolution by light microscopy. Therefore, metallographic observation of these very fine structural features is generally restricted to electron microscopy. The scale hierarchy of microstructural features is described in more detail in the article “Introduction to Structures in Metals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001431
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... The decanted weld pool shape can be evaluated by two methods: Using silicone rubber to replicate the weld pool cavity Visually measuring the weld pool cavity dimensions along the sample top surface, and also on a metallographic transverse cross section of the cavity The silicone rubber replicas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001384
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
..., the influencing factors, surface appearance and deformation, and metallographic examination. continuous seam welds deformation line welds mechanical properties metallographic examination microelectronic welds ring welds spot welds ultrasonic welding welding equipment ULTRASONIC WELDING (USW...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to elevated temperatures. The most direct method of creep assessment involves metallographic examination of sections cut from components. For components still in operation, this method necessarily renders the component unfit for service. Thus, methods of assessing the condition of a component through...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001727
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... be evaluated from s o , which is determined by analysis of the samples. Alternatively, an appropriate series of replicate measurements or samples can be devised to evaluate both standard deviations. Further reduction in measurement uncertainty is unimportant once it is one third or less of the sampling...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The article discusses the analysis and interpretation of base material composition and microstructures. Preparation and examination of metallographic specimens in failure analysis are also discussed. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the processes involved in the selection of metallurgical samples, the preparation and examination of metallographic specimens in failure analysis, and the analysis and interpretation of microstructures. Examination and evaluation of polymers and ceramic materials in failure analysis are also briefly discussed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... to replicate a failure or to show that a given scenario may or may not have contributed to a problem. Redesign Sometimes the final determination of a failure analysis investigation is that a device design should be modified. In this case, the failure analysis investigation provides key information...