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metallographic preparation

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., either manually or by the use of image analyzers. Preparation of metallographic specimens generally requires five major operations: sectioning, mounting, grinding, chemical polishing, and etching. The article provides information on the principles of technique selection in mechanical polishing, and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... alloys, refractory metals and alloys, zinc and zinc alloys, and wrought heat-resisting alloys. The preparation of specimens for metallographic technique includes operations such as sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing, and etching of nonferrous metals and alloys. The article contains tables that...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Proper sectioning of the surface to be examined is a very important step in preparing steel specimens. The first step in preventing damage to the metallurgical structure is to minimize the amount of sectioning that is done. This article discusses the various metallographic techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... structure ( Ref 13 ). Fig. 3 Scanning electron micrographs of an electrodeposited chromium film. (a) Fracture cross section. (b) Plan view showing the presence of cracks within the coating Most standard metallographic preparation techniques can be applied to coatings, and polished cross sections...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003988
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... , Ref 20 , Ref 21 , Ref 22 ). Samples of powders intended for forging applications are repress powder forged under closely controlled laboratory conditions. The resulting compacts are sectioned and prepared for metallographic examination. The inclusion assessment technique involves the use of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... analytical capabilities, specimen preparation, and the interpretation of fracture features. SEM can be subdivided into four systems, namely, illuminating/imaging, information, display, and vacuum systems. The article also describes the major criteria and techniques of SEM specimen preparation, and the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... surface preparation methods and finishing treatments of coated parts. The article also explains the tests to evaluate the coating quality and the effects of coating structures and mechanical properties on coated parts. It concludes with a discussion on the uses of thermal spray coatings. coating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... no sample preparation ( Ref 31 ). However, most samples will require some sample preparation. In most cases, standard careful metallographic sectioning and polishing techniques should produce adequate samples for EBSD. The standard preparation steps leading up to the final polishing step include...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... preparation, weld repair process selection, joint selection, filler metal selection, weld repair considerations, deposition techniques, postweld heat treatment, and verification of weld repair quality. castings ferrous materials filler metal selection nonferrous materials postweld heat treatment...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Fractography is the systematic study of fractures and fracture surfaces. It is a useful tool in failure analysis and provides a means for correlating the influence of microstructure on the fracture mode of a given material. This article discusses the preservation, preparation, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article reviews many commonly used stereological counting measurements and the relationships based on these parameters. The discussion covers the processes involved in sampling and specimen preparation. Quantitative microstructural measurements are described including volume...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... larger spheres, while spheres of all sizes are in focus with the SEM due to better depth of field. The SEM is generally inferior to the OM for routine examination of samples prepared using standard metallographic techniques when examined at magnifications less than 300 to 400×. Standard...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... affecting forgeability. It describes the forging techniques, equipment, and common processing elements associated with titanium alloy forging. The processing elements include the preparation of forging stock, preheating of the stock, die heating, lubrication, forging process, trimming and repair, cleaning...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... The discussion covers the general principles, equipment used, specimen preparation process, calibration conditions, data analysis steps, and examples of the applications and interpretation of TMA. Thermomechanical analysis Thermomechanical analysis (TMA) is a thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article focuses on the principles and applications of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for the analysis of elemental and chemical composition. The discussion covers the nomenclature, instruments, and specimen preparation process of XPS. Some of the factors pertinent to the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... preparing single-stage, double-stage, and extraction replicas of fracture surfaces. It discusses the types of artifacts and their effects on these replicas, and provides information on shadowing of replicas. The article concludes with a comparison of the transmission electron and scanning electron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., fabrication methods, sample preparation, bulk/elemental characterization methods, microstructural characterization methods, surface characterization methods, and electronic characterization methods. semiconductor characterization This article introduces various techniques commonly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... control, equipment, surface preparation, and crack patterns and other characteristics of hard chromium plating. It offers recommendations for the design and use of plating racks, describes the problems encountered in hard chromium plating, and their corrective procedures. The article provides information...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005340
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., and the oxides collect at the frit. Hence the frit has to be exposed and metallographically prepared to reveal the oxide count (mm 2 /kg) of the sample. In a study ( Ref 2 ) conducted by DasGupta and Apelian, cleanliness of a 319 aluminum alloy melt was determined using the LAIS technique. Four...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Bearing steel cleanliness is most commonly rated by using microscopic techniques, such as those defined in ASTM A 295 for high-carbon steels and A 534 for carburizing steels. The worst fields found in metallographically prepared sections of the steel can be compared with rating charts (J-K charts...