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metallographic laboratory

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003751
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... in the metallographic laboratory: grinding, polishing, etching, preparing a replica, and obtaining a small sample. The article also illustrates the applications of field metallography with case studies. etching field metallography grinding material characteristics polishing specimen preparation specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0005650
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... etchants handling hydrofluoric acid laboratory chemicals laboratory equipment laboratory safety material safety data sheets metallography personal protective equipment safety precautions solvents spills and cleanup storage THE METALLOGRAPHIC LABORATORY is a relatively safe working...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of pressure. Too much pressure will heat the specimen and alter its microstructure. In most cases, a water-based coolant must flow over the specimen at the region of cutting to prevent heating. Shear In many metallographic laboratories, a shear is used to remove specimens from a steel sheet or thin...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... In the case of relatively brittle materials, sectioning may be accomplished by fracturing the specimen at the desired location. Abrasive-Wheel Cutting By far, the most widely used sectioning devices in metallographic laboratories are abrasive cut-off machines ( Fig. 1 ). All abrasive-wheel sectioning...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003746
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... carbide. Resin-bonded wheels, which have very high cutting rates, are generally used for dry cutting and find application in plant production cutting. Wet cutting wheels require a rubber or rubber-resin bond and are used in metallographic laboratories. The rate of wheel deterioration depends...
Image
Published: 01 January 1987
) of the pipe. Other metallographic work revealed that this region had been moderately sensitized due to the combined effects of welding and subsequent stress relief. Investigators concluded that polythionic acid (H 2 S x O 6 , where x = 3 to 5) was produced when the condensate reacted in the presence More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article reviews photographic principles, namely, visual examination, field photographic documentation, and laboratory photographic documentation, as applied to failure analysis and the specific techniques employed in both the field and laboratory. It provides information...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005729
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... Abstract Metallographic examination is a critical step in the assessment of thermal spray coating characteristics. This article discusses the major steps involved in metallographic examination: sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing, optical microscopy, and image analysis. It provides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... for metallographic work with the material being cut and may use a machine designed for production sectioning rather than laboratory use. The depth of damage under the cut surface will be much greater when production-type abrasive wheels and machines are used, compared to when metallographic laboratory wheels...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to the structure. Laboratory abrasive-wheel cutting is recommended to establish the desired plane of polish. The most commonly used sectioning device in the metallographic laboratory is the abrasive cutoff machine. All abrasive-wheel sectioning should be performed wet. An ample flow of coolant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003661
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., and electrochemical noise measurements. The visual examination, metallographic examination, and nondestructive inspection of pits are discussed. The article reviews the procedures for the use of standard charts, metal penetration, statistical analysis, and loss in mechanical properties to quantify the severity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003749
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract Metallographic contrasting methods include various electrochemical, optical, and physical etching techniques, which in turn are enhanced by the formation of a thin transparent film on the specimen surface. This article primarily discusses etching in conjunction with light microscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... photographic principles and techniques as applied to failure analysis, both in the field and in the laboratory. The discussion covers the processes involved in field and laboratory photographic documentations, provides a description of professional digital cameras, and gives information on photographic...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... format, which is frequently used in photomacrography. Since the 1960s, Polaroid instant films have become widely used in metallographic laboratories due chiefly to the increased speed of obtaining prints and the reduction in manpower to produce them. Today, there are a host of panchromatic film sizes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract Mounting of the specimen is often desirable or necessary for handling and metallographic polishing after the specimen is cut into an appropriate size. This article illustrates the different mechanical clamps used in mounting small specimens. It provides useful information...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... wheel cutting is another common method of sectioning steel samples. Most metallographic laboratories have an abrasive wheel device. Abrasive wheel cutting, if properly executed, is, by far, the best technique for obtaining a steel specimen surface that is smooth, has minimal deformation, and has minimal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to the structure. Laboratory abrasive-wheel cutting is recommended to establish the desired plane of polish. The most commonly used sectioning device in the metallographic laboratory is the abrasive cutoff machine. All abrasive-wheel sectioning should be performed wet. An ample flow of coolant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... microstructure. (b) The presence of a columnar grain structure within the splats. Source: S.J. Bull, AEA Technology Fig. 2 Metallographic cross section of a pure tungsten coating revealing its lamellar microstructure and splat network. 500×. Source: W. Riggs, TubalCain Company Inc. A major...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
..., the laboratory investigation can proceed. The purposes of the laboratory investigation are to determine if the material was manufactured according to the specifications and to identify any potential problems that may have played a role in the failure of the part. The laboratory investigation begins by conducting...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... behavior. It covers the steps involved in sample preparation, including sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing, and etching, and presents several examples of macro and microanalysis on various metals and alloys. macroanalysis metallographic sectioning microanalysis optical metallography...