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metal crystals

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... parameters for some of the simple metallic crystals. A table that lists the crystal structures of various metal elements is presented. The crystal structures are described by the Pearson symbols for crystal system, space lattice, total number of atoms per unit cell, and prototype structure. The article...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0006544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... mechanisms used to characterize structures. It illustrates the unit cells and ion positions for some simple metal crystals, arranged alphabetically according to Pearson symbol. The space lattice and crystal system, space-group notation, and prototype for each crystal are also illustrated. corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., little tendency for compound formation, and strong binding energies are considered favorable for embrittlement. Embrittlement is favored by barriers to dislocation motion (grain boundaries or precipitates), high strength, and grain-boundary segregation. Thus, pure metals and single crystals are less...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... provide information on the crystal structures and lattice parameters of allotropes of metallic elements. Bravais lattices crystal defects crystal structure metallic elements plastic flow CRYSTAL STRUCTURE, as defined broadly, is the arrangement of atoms or molecules in the solid state...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article illustrates the three techniques for producing glassy metals, namely, liquid phase quenching, atomic or molecular deposition, and external action technique. Devitrification of an amorphous alloy can proceed by several routes, including primary crystallization, eutectoid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005424
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... crystal plasticity deforming crystals polycrystals elastic behaviour plastic behavior SOLID METALLIC MATERIALS typically are crystalline, existing with well-defined lattice structures. The lattices possess certain symmetries dependent on the packing arrangements of atoms. Accompanying the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... at a number of natural phenomena. The total number of solved structures to date exceeds 1.3 million (more than 100,000 structures are deposited in the Cambridge Structural Database, a repository for small-molecule organic and metal-organic crystal structures; and about 200,000 structures are...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Semisolid metal (SSM) processing is a special die casting process, where partially solidified metal slurry is injected into a die cavity to form die cast components. This article discusses the flow behavior of SSM slurry with emphasis on viscosity, rheological behavior, and yield...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Fig. 2 (a) and (b) U.S. dollar costs of noble and precious metals per troy ounce (1970–2010). Source: Ref 12 , Ref 13 , Ref 14 , Ref 15 , Ref 16 , Ref 17 Table 1 Physical properties of noble and precious metals Element (symbol) Crystal lattice (a) (b) Atomic number Color...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... microstructural scale for homogenization of metal alloys. It also discusses the CALPHAD software to optimize the homogenization heat treatment and the Scheil module of the commercial thermodynamic modeling software. castings computational algorithm heat treatment homogenization incipient melt point...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006258
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... composites. It discusses the microstructures used for the most common magnesium alloys used in metal-matrix composites, namely, magnesium-aluminum, magnesium-rare earth and magnesium-lithium alloys. The article focuses on the most common methods of heat treatment, including solution heat treatment...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article discusses the solidification of matrix alloy in cast metal matrix composites (MMCs). It begins with a discussion on the mixing techniques in reinforcement incorporation and wettability of reinforcement. It describes the solidification processes, such as stir mixing and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... acoustic transducer, radiography, thermography, and low-frequency vibration methods. The article also provides information on NDE methods commonly used for metal-matrix composites. acoustic emission computed tomography digital radiography eddy-current electromagnetic acoustic transducer fiber...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... crystals less than 5 μm (200 μin.) in size or may agglomerate into millimeter-sized aggregates. Other heavy metals present, such as lead, cadmium, nickel, manganese, and chromium, can also lead to intermetallic compound precipitation (for example, Mn 2 Al 5 , Ni 2 Al 3 , and CrAl 4 ). These compounds...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005400
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... the reader to appreciate and critically analyze more sophisticated recent approaches to crystal-plasticity modeling. While most of the examples involve cubic metals deforming by rate-insensitive plastic flow, the concepts outlined here can be generalized to other crystal structures and loading...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... performance (e.g., strength, elastic modulus, ductility, fracture toughness) of metallic materials. Crystallographic texture, or simply texture for succinctness, may arise as a result of large-strain deformation, dynamic/static recrystallization, grain growth, or phase transformation ( Ref 1 ). A second form...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... presence of one is indicated by “1” in Fig. 3 . When the TiAl 3 crystal comes in contact with liquid aluminum, it starts to dissolve. This means the liquid metal at the surface of the particle becomes enriched in titanium, as shown by “2” in Fig. 3 . From the relationships shown in the aluminum-titanium...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... epitaxial crystallographic relationship between AlP and the silicon crystal. Modifiers react with phosphorus . The elements that have been reported to produce modification ( Ref 7 , 41 , 44 ) are indicated by the shaded areas in Fig. 4 . These are all reactive metals that form compounds with...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003120
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... are investment cast, including VIM superalloys, steels, and aluminum. These metals are melted and poured into the mold and solidified under conditions according to whether the product is to be large or small, and polycrystalline, columnar grained, or single crystal. Grain size in polycrystalline...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
.... Strengthening of cobalt-base alloys is accomplished by solid-solution alloying (e.g., molybdenum, tungsten, tantalum, and niobium) in combination with carbon to promote carbide precipitation. Compared to the wrought alloys, cast cobalt-base superalloys are characterized by higher contents of high-melting metals...