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metal contamination

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... including metallic contaminant removal, tarnish removal, oxide and scale removal, finishing, and coating processes. abrasive blast cleaning coating process electropolishing heat-resistant alloys passivation salt bath descaling stainless steel surface treatment tarnish removal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article describes the methods for removing metallic contaminants, tarnish, and scale resulting from hot-working or heat-treating operations on nickel-, cobalt-, and iron-base heat-resistant alloys. It provides a brief description of applicable finishing and coating processes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... mercury to wet the weld metal at the root of the weld, and led to LMIE crack propagation. Other mercury-contaminated welds were detected by x-ray radiography and removed, and the mercury absorption material was replaced. A similar failure has been reported in an aluminum alloy piping elbow in a...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... contain nonmetallic inclusions from unfiltered primary or secondary ingot. Scrap materials may contain molding sand, debris from back-charged gates and runners, metalworking lubricants, paint and coatings, plastics, or unsorted and unwanted heavy-metal contaminant oxides (iron, manganese, chromium, and so...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000625
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article is an atlas of fractographs that helps in understanding the causes and mechanisms of fracture of metal-matrix composites, including tungsten fiber-reinforced aluminum, tungsten fiber-reinforced carbon steel, and tungsten fiber-reinforced silver. The fractographs illustrate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
.../Al MMCs have been fabricated using techniques where aluminum foils, filaments, and precursor wires are consolidated by diffusion bonding. If the diffusion bonds are of low integrity or contaminated, severe corrosion damage may result. Aluminum is a reactive metal with a high driving force to...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005261
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... mold, providing a critical airtight seal around the parting line of the mold. A controlled vacuum is applied through engineered passages (vacuum track) and vents in the upper mold half to evacuate air and other contaminating atmosphere from the cavity. As a result of the vacuum, molten metal begins to...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005340
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... “contaminatedmetal before pouring/casting. Fig. 1 Inclusion (dross from melt) on machined surface led to broken machine tool. (a) Inclusion on machined surface. (b) Fracture through inclusion Fig. 2 Oxide inclusions in tensile bars machined from actual castings contributing to poor tensile...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... change in some gallium alloys may be the effect of moisture contamination causing excessive expansion ( Ref 45 ). In addition, some gallium alloys show inferior corrosion resistance compared to amalgam alloys ( Ref 37 , 52 ). Typical metal joining operations in dentistry include soldering...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Metal-matrix composites (MMCs) are a class of materials with potential for a wide variety of structural and thermal applications. This article discusses the mechanical properties of MMCs, namely aluminum-matrix composites, titanium-matrix composites, magnesium-matrix composites, copper...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article discusses various molten-metal treatments, namely fluxing, degassing, and molten-metal filtration. It focuses on various molten-metal handling systems for transporting, holding, or delivering molten metal to the mold/die system. These include launders, tundishes, holding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... acoustic transducer, radiography, thermography, and low-frequency vibration methods. The article also provides information on NDE methods commonly used for metal-matrix composites. acoustic emission computed tomography digital radiography eddy-current electromagnetic acoustic transducer fiber...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... metals. (Detergents have recently been developed that clean buffed soft metals without tarnishing.) Intricate internal cavities contaminated only with oils could be cleaned with an immersion emulsion. Care must be taken to ensure that the emulsion can be thoroughly rinsed unless it is compatible...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003994
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... Induction heating is required if higher forging temperatures are required. Above 760 °C (1400 °F), molybdenum forms a liquid oxide that volatilizes rapidly enough that surface contamination is rarely a problem. If metal losses are excessive, protective atmospheres such as argon, carbon monoxide, or hydrogen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... Before being painted, metals usually are exposed to one or more fabricating processes, such as rolling, stamping, forming, forging, machining, and heat treating. In these processes, the metal surfaces pick up various contaminants that can either interfere with the adhesion of the paint film or allow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract Zinc is one of the most used metals, ranking fourth in worldwide production and consumption behind iron, aluminum, and copper. This article commences with an overview of the applications of zinc that can be divided into six categories: coatings, casting alloys, alloying element in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... temperature), the quench severity—or the ability to extract heat from hot metals—is approximately four times as high for titanium as that accepted for steel, under conditions of moderate circulation or agitation. Table 5 ( Ref 26 ) shows the comparison. The thermal gradient near the quenching end is much...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... acid oxidizes the metal surface. Then the oxide is dissolved in hydrofluoric acid. The nitric-hydrofluoric bath also dissolves iron-containing contaminants that may have become embedded or included in the metal surface during high-temperature processing. In the pickling area, ventilation and drainage...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005198
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... furnaces tilting movable furnaces CRUCIBLES, in the form of well-fired clay pots, were present at the dawn of the metals industry, some 6000 years ago, and gave early metal workers the ability to melt metal in a durable container that could then be used to pour the molten material into a mold. Few...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... significant scale ( Ref 1 ). Also, contaminants and material impurities have a similar effect, reducing or even eliminating adhesion between solids ( Ref 2 ). The oxidation of metals occurs rapidly, even at low temperatures, and the rate at which oxidation proceeds is often limited only by the supply of...