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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... Abstract This article discusses the history of shape memory alloys (SMAs) along with their properties, capabilities, and crystallography, including phase transformations that occur during thermal treatment. It describes the thermomechanical behaviors of SMAs and explains how to characterize...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003160
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract The term shape memory alloys (SMAs) refers to the group of metallic materials that demonstrate the ability to return to some previously defined shape or size when subjected to the appropriate thermal procedure. Materials that exhibit shape memory only upon heating are referred...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Abstract This article focuses on the specific aspects of nitinol that are of interest to medical device designers. It describes the physical metallurgy, physical properties, and tensile properties of the nitinol. The article discusses the factors influencing superelastic shape memory effects...
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Published: 01 June 2012
Fig. 6 Schematics of shape memory effect and superelasticity. Thermal shape memory (left) occurs when austenite is cooled to form twinned martensite. Then an applied stress rearranges the twins to produce a new shape, and subsequent heating reverts the martensite to austenite, thus reproducing More
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Published: 01 June 2016
Fig. 17 Schematics of thermal shape memory effect and superelasticity. Thermal shape memory (left) occurs when austenite is cooled to form twinned martensite. Then an applied stress rearranges the twins to produce a new shape, and subsequent heating reverts the martensite to austenite, thus More
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Published: 01 November 1995
Fig. 24 Schematic of a nondestructive readout memory device in two configurations. Source: Ref 77 More
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Published: 01 December 2009
Fig. 1 Growth in computer hardware performance, 1970 to 1995. (a) Memory chip capacity doubles every 1.5 years. (b) Clock rate. (c) Peak single-process megaflops. Source: Ref 7 More
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Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 1 Characteristics of shape memory alloys. (a) Typical transformation versus temperature curve for a specimen under constant load (stress) as it is cooled and heated. T , transformation hysteresis. M s , martensite start; M f , martensite finish; A s , austenite start; A f , austenite More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 43 (a) Copper-zinc shape memory alloy showing equal proportions of variants A, B, C, and D. (b) Variant D becomes dominant after thermomechanical training. Source: Ref 37 . Reprinted with permission More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 12 Microstructure of a shape memory alloy (Cu-26%Zn-5%Al) showing β 1 martensite in a face-centered cubic alpha matrix, using Nomarski differential interference contrast without etching. The magnification bar is 25 μm long. More
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Published: 01 January 1996
Fig. 6 Schematic of: (a) memory of a prior deformation and (b) Bauschinger effect with softening exaggerated for clarity. The hysteresis loop in (b) shows that on unloading, plastic deformation begins at a lower backward stress, σ B , than reached in the forward direction, σ F . The initial More
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Published: 01 January 1997
Fig. 4 Memory density trends. Source: Ref 5 More
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Published: 01 January 1997
Fig. 1 Growth in computer hardware performance, 1970 to 1995. (a) Memory chip capacity doubles every 1.5 years. (b) Clock rate. (c) Peak single-process megaflops. Source: Ref 7 More
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Published: 01 November 2010
Fig. 1 Historical comparison of approximate speed and memory capabilities for personal computers (PCs) during the last two decades. CPU, central processing unit; RAM, random access memory More
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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 4 M s temperatures and compositions of Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloys More
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Published: 15 December 2019
Fig. 37 Martensite in nitinol (Ni-50at.%Ti) shape memory alloy revealed by etching using equal parts HNO 3 , acetic acid, and hydrofluoric acid, and viewed using bright field (a) and Nomarski DIC (b). Nomarski DIC reveals more detail compared with bright field. More
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Published: 15 December 2019
Fig. 44 As-polished Cu-26%Zn-5%Al shape memory alloy viewed using polarized light (a) and Nomarski DIC (b). Both imaging modes vividly reveal ß 1 martensite formed in face-centered cubic alpha phase by cycling the alloy through the shape memory alloy thermal cycle. More
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Published: 30 September 2015
Fig. 5 Cable-stayed bridges. (a) Veterans' Memorial Bridge, Weirton, WV. Courtesy of KTA-Tator, Inc. (b) Normandy Bridge over the Seine River near Le Havre, France. Source: Ref 3 More
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Published: 30 September 2015
Fig. 6 Suspension bridges. (a) Delaware Memorial Bridge carrying I-295 and U.S. Route 40 between Delaware and New Jersey. (b) Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco, CA. Courtesy of KTA-Tator, Inc. More
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 3 Duplicate of an early hot wall autoclave at Battelle Memorial Institute. Maximum pressure: 34 MPa (5000 psi); maximum temperature: 815 °C (1500 °F). Source: Ref 32 More