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medium-to-high-energy ionized atoms

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...: Ref 6 Abstract Abstract Ion implantation involves the bombardment of a solid material with medium-to-high-energy ionized atoms and offers the ability to alloy virtually any elemental species into the near-surface region of any substrate. This article describes the fundamentals of the ion...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...; and carbon and tantalum on biological implants Deposition of electrically conductive diffusion barriers (for example, hafnium nitride, HfN, and TiN on semiconductor devices) Ion Implantation Process Description Ion implantation involves the bombardment of a solid material with medium-to-high...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... implantation involves the bombardment of a solid material with medium-to-high-energy ionized atoms and offers the ability to alloy virtually any elemental species into the near-surface region of any substrate. The advantage of such a process is that it produces improved surface properties without...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005731
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... is ionized in a strong induced magnetic field; the magnetic field is induced by a high-frequency (450 kHz to several MHz) current flowing in a coil surrounding the flowing gas. For the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) atomic emission test, a tube is inserted beneath the glowing ionized argon cloud or annulus...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001728
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
..., because electrons are repelled from the cathode faster than the heavier positive ions are attracted to it and a positive space charge develops. Electrons exiting the cathode are accelerated through this region of high electric field, termed the cathode fall, and acquire sufficient energy to ionize...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006640
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... through this region of high electric field, termed the cathode fall, and acquire sufficient energy to ionize the buffer gas, normally argon. The buffer gas ions are in turn accelerated toward the cathode, gaining sufficient energy to eject atoms of the cathode material when they strike its surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
...-neutral, electrically conductive medium. The composition of the gas within which the plasma is generated strongly affects the energy required for ionization and plays a significant role in the distribution of heat within the process. The contribution of metal atoms from the substrate and/or filler...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... maximum ion transmission and the highest analytical signals. A medium- or high-resolution setting (or a combination) must be used when analyzing difficult matrices or trying to resolve challenging mass interferences that a unit mass resolution ICP-MS cannot resolve. Although absolute ion transmission...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001340
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... joining these materials. Its low ionization potential results in easy arc starting. Argon produces a constricted arc column with high current density, which concentrates the arc energy over a small area; deep, fingerlike penetration results. A reactive gas, carbon dioxide is generally used only...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005597
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... cylinder, the following generally applies: Shielding gases such as carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and oxygen are multiatom molecules. When heated to high temperatures within the arc plasma, these gases break down, or dissociate, into their component atoms. They are then at least partially ionized, producing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001729
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... total argon flow, require less power, and solid-state RF generators providing approximately 1 kW of power are sufficient. The RF generator supplies the high-frequency alternating current in the induction coil that initiates and sustains the inductive coupling of energy into the plasma. The current...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006648
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... ionization processes occur in GDMS, including electron ionization related to collisions with high energetic electrons (considered to be the main process responsible for the ionization of the discharge gas atoms); asymmetric charge transfer between ions of the discharge gas and sputtered species, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006647
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... for Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry , Pergamon Press , Oxford , 1984 15. Boumans P.W.J.M. and Boerde F.J. , Studies of an Inductively-Coupled High-Frequency Argon Plasma for Optical Emisson Spectrometry, Part II: Compromise Conditions for Simultaneous Multielement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... and the high voltage applied to either the workpieces or the active screen as the cathode surface. The isolated-hearth arrangement is divided into three basic areas: The mechanism of nitrogen atom production and transfer from the medium to the component surface is one of the principal differences between...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... of an image-intensifier tube These early image intensifiers were originally developed for medical purposes and were limited to applications with low-energy radiation (because of low detection efficiencies at high energies). Consequently, industrial radiography with these devices was restricted...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... In addition to the high attenuation of several light elements (hydrogen, lithium, and boron), certain medium to heavy elements (especially cadmium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, and dysprosium) and certain specific isotopes have exceptionally high capabilities for absorbing thermal neutrons. This means...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627082136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005580
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... FCAW SAW Weld quality Good Excellent Excellent Good Excellent Weld deposition rate Fair Poor Good Good Excellent Field work Excellent Poor Fair/good Fair/good Poor Equipment maintenance Low Low Medium/high Medium/high Medium Smoke/fume emission Medium/high Low...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... medium such as transformer oil or an insulating gas. The main purpose of the insulated housing is to provide protection from high-voltage electrical shock. Housings usually contain quick disconnects for electrical cables from the high-voltage power supply or transformer. On self-contained units, most...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005205
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... be accomplished by an applied voltage between two electrodes (as in the case of fluorescent lights). Plasmas also can be generated by various “electrodeless” methods that involve radio frequency (RF) discharges, microwaves, high-frequency induction coils, shock waves, lasers, or high-energy particle beams...