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measurement accuracy

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... difference. The fields measured should be selected at locations over the entire polished surface, not confined to a small portion of the specimen surface. The field measurements should be averaged, and the standard deviation can be used to assess the relative accuracy of the measurement, as described in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... personal computer), and equipment portability ( Ref 13 ). The importance of the XRD method resides in its ability to measure residual and applied stress with high spatial resolution, speed, and excellent accuracy, and, in many cases, measurements can be performed nondestructively ( Ref 14 ). The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... limits of the present accuracy of measurement. More recently, the standards groups of the world have agreed upon a new temperature scale called the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) ( Ref 4 ). The ITS-90 became effective on January 1, 1990, and was developed to overcome the deficiencies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... known materials, demonstrated accuracy is generally within ±5% relative in 95% of analyses for major and minor constituents. Low-atomic-number elements (e.g., F, O, N, C, and B) can be measured with useful accuracy as major constituents in fluorides, oxides, nitrides, carbides, and borides. Quantitative...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... information on the factors applicable to the accuracy and precision of AFM measurements. It ends by discussing the applications for AFMs in the fields of science, technology, and engineering. precision atomic force microscopy There are three general types of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... calibration of materials for accurate measurements using XPS are provided, along with some aspects of the accuracy in quantitative analysis by XPS. In addition, the article presents examples of how XPS data can be used to solve problems with surface interactions. chemical composition X-ray...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... building the molds. It examines the effect of mold design on mold life. The article outlines the primary purposes, procedure, and application of mold coatings. The variables that determine mold temperature and control measures associated with mold temperature are reviewed. The article explains the effect...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003158
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Thermocouple devices are the most widely used devices for measurement of temperature in the metals industry. Favorable characteristics of these devices include good accuracy, suitability over a wide temperature range, fast thermal response, ruggedness, high reliability, low cost, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... sample surface to be measured with the accuracy needed to determine the strain in the surface. Figure 1 shows the diffraction of a monochromatic beam of x-rays at a high diffraction angle, 2θ, from the surface of a stressed sample for two orientations of the sample relative to the x-ray beam. The angle...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003986
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... forgings Before forging Workpiece material Workpiece size Workpiece shape Die-making accuracy Die-measuring accuracy Die cavity surface Elastic die deformation Die-setting accuracy Die design Forging sequence Type of forging machine Required load and energy Forging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Visual inspection (VI) is the oldest inspection technique man has used as a quality-control tool to evaluate products, assess their final form in terms of fabrication accuracy and external features based on experience, and decide on their acceptance or rejection. This article discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... variations, possible accuracy issues in the database entry, and aberrations in specimen mounting) of one measurement step (0.01 to 0.05 Å). Manual and computer methods are the two principal ways the file can be used to identify crystalline phases from their powder patterns. The identification of phases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003974
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... deflection is obtained; that is, high loads L P and low deformation energies E P are measured. Thus, errors in calculating E P do not impair the accuracy of the stiffness calculations. In addition to direct friction and electric drives, several other types of mechanical, electric, and hydraulic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract The systematic study of microstructural evolution during deformation under hot working conditions is important in controlling processing variables to achieve dimensional accuracy. This article explains the microstructural features that need to be modeled and provides an outline of the...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article discusses slurry molding that encompasses two distinct processes: plaster molding and ceramic molding. Plaster mold casting is a specialized casting process used to produce nonferrous castings that have greater dimensional accuracy, smoother surfaces, and more finely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003971
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... surface-rolling machines. The article outlines the significant characteristics of pressing-type machines: load and energy characteristics, time-related characteristics, and accuracy characteristics. It summarizes different specialized processes such as advanced roll-forming methods, equal-channel angular...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... extrusion, chill-roll film extrusion, pipe or tube extrusion, wire and cable coverings, extrusion coating, and profile extrusion, and provides some discussion on multiple-screw extruders. The article describes the dimensional accuracy of extrusion products, and lists common defects that occur frequently in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005798
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... depth of burn from the spectrographic analysis. For best accuracy, the sample should have a sufficiently large flat surface area to allow multiple burns at each depth increment. Measuring surface carbon content and the near-surface carbon gradient to a depth of 100 μm (4000 μin.) can be performed with...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001298
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... = ( sin θ cos ψ ) / 2 μ where μ is the linear absorption coefficient, which can be obtained from Ref 14 for various materials and radiations. Fourth, to achieve high accuracy in residual stress, the measurement should only be carried out on an ( hkl ) reflection line with Bragg angles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... levels, resistance heating elements, quenching systems, work load support, pumping systems, and temperature control systems. It describes the classification of instruments used for measuring and recording pressure inside a vacuum processing chamber. Common devices include hydrostatic measuring devices...