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matrix smears

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Abstract This article discusses the composition of major components of dental composite resins. The components include organic resin matrix, filler, coupling agents, and initiator-accelerator systems. The article provides a description of three steps in adhesive systems, namely, etching...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003842
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
..., oxide ceramics, non-silica forming nitrides, carbides, and borides. The performance of environmental barrier coatings by material type is also discussed. The article also explains the effects of oxidation and corrosion on the mechanical properties of ceramic-matrix composites. It concludes with...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...) occurs at a lower value and is detected between gray levels of 0 to 129; the lighter phase (background matrix) is detected between gray levels of 130 to 255. Editing is used to separate, delineate, or classify features based on their morphology or size. Examples of editing functions include dilation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Quartz particles in a glass matrix Polymers Cements:  Glass ionomer Acrylic or maleic acid copolymer and calcium aluminosilicate matrix with aluminosilicate glass (unreacted) or silver-glass cermet (unreacted)  Zinc polyacrylate Acrylic polymer and zinc oxide (unreacted) Composites...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... exposed to a temperature close to but below the nominal melting point. When grain boundaries contain more impurities, their melting point is lower in comparison to the matrix. Initial damage causes the grain boundaries to appear wider (sometimes requiring etching to see). Subsequent damage appears as...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... 2150 280 500 The usual microstructure of gray iron is a matrix of pearlite with graphite flakes dispersed throughout. Foundry practice can be varied so that nucleation and growth of graphite flakes occur in a pattern that enhances the desired properties. The amount, size, and distribution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... discussed in the article “Fracture Appearance and Mechanisms of Deformation and Fracture” in this Volume. In a smooth cylindrical tensile specimen, failure most commonly initiates by inclusion-matrix interface debonding near the centerline. This results in a central fibrous region, which is normal to the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... solubility of either element in the other, they also have the same self-protection mechanism against atmospheric oxidation. The aluminum is the matrix, and the beryllium is the reinforcement. Aluminum-beryllium composites are made by inert gas atomization from a molten alloy. The input aluminum is 1100...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is a property of the near-surface material developed in situ ( Ref 12 ). A different subsurface region system develops when a brittle or nondeforming matrix is subjected to repetitive impact ( Ref 12 ). A white layer still forms, but the base material tends to remain undeformed ( Fig. 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000620
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...× Fig. 944 Another view of the fracture surface shown in Fig. 938 . Again, no evidence of true dimples, but cellular structure only. There are many small inclusions on the surface; most are not bonded to the matrix. SEM, 1000× Fig. 945 An overload fracture in a miniature tensile-test...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... polishing, because deformation caused by cutting and grinding extends to a greater depth. Embedding of abrasive particles in the metal during polishing is more likely, and relief between the matrix and second-phase particles, which are much harder than the matrix, will develop more readily during polishing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... galling at higher contact pressures against different steel sheet materials ( Ref 64 , 146 ). At critical pressures, the plasticized sheet material slides along the tool (causing accelerated wear of the tool matrix), which, in turn, promotes extensive sheet-material transfer and lump formation. In this...
Book Chapter

By S. Lampman
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... increase in the thickness yields no increase in observed x-ray intensity. The critical value for infinite thickness will depend on the energy of the emitted x-radiation and the mass absorption coefficient of the sample matrix for those x-rays. For pure iron, the critical thickness is approximately 40 μm...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... appropriate procedures exist. In multiphase alloys, the rates of polishing of different phases often are not the same. Polishing results depend heavily on whether the second or third phases are strongly cathodic or anodic with respect to the matrix. The matrix is dissolved preferentially if the other...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003058
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... axial tension combined with biaxial compression decreases the strength by 20%. The effect of inclusions on the fracture strength depends on the thermal-expansion coefficient mismatch between inclusions and matrix, and on the toughness and modulus of the inclusions with respect to the matrix. These...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... Certain grades of foamed plastics may also be used. For decorative POP, ABS is by far the most commonly used plastic. ABS is a thermoplastic alloy with an acrylonitrile-styrene matrix that has butadiene rubber dispersed throughout. The butadiene is selectively etched by the pretreatment chemistry...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...) backprojection technique. This technique filters (or convolutes) the projection data and then backprojects the filtered data into the 3-D image matrix. The backprojection process is the mathematical operation of mapping the 2-D projection data back into a 3-D grid, and it is equivalent to smearing the filtered...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... from such high temperatures or reheated in the range of 425 to 815 °C (800 to 1500 °F), chromium carbides are precipitated at the grain boundaries. These carbides contain more chromium than the matrix contains. The precipitation of the carbides depletes the matrix of chromium adjacent to the grain...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... The soft and friable nature of the graphite phase, in combination with the relatively hard matrix, presents difficulties during preparation not normally experienced with other ferrous metals. Techniques that will promote a scratch-free and distortion-free surface for the matrix may not retain the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... was softer (53 to 56 HRC) and etches darker. The unaffected matrix is beneath this zone, off the edge of the micrograph. Figure 1(b) shows the extreme surface at high magnification. Incipient melting can be observed to a depth of approximately 10 μm. The light-etching zone contains untempered...