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massive transformation structure

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003735
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...Typical massive transformations Table 1 Typical massive transformations Alloy system or metal Amount of solute at which transformation occurs (a) , at.% Temperature during quenching at which transformation occurs (a) Change in crystal structure (b) °C °F Silver...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
..., and grain growth. The article also describes the various types of solid-state transformations such as isothermal transformation and athermal transformation, resulting from the heat treatment of nonferrous alloys. It provides information on the homogenization of chemical composition within a cast structure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003730
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Massive transformation Martensitic structures (ferrous, non-ferrous, shape memory) Bainitic structures crystallography multiphase microstructure Solid-state transformation substructure transformation structure ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005982
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... of a given hardness. However, in carburizing steels with low hardenability or in massive carburized parts, which cool slowly, the austenite may transform to bainitic or pearlitic microstructures of lower hardness than martensite. Therefore, identical carbon gradients may produce quite different hardness...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... temperature and occurs very early during the holding period. The second step consists of holding at 900 to 970 °C (1650 to 1780 °F); this step is called first-stage graphitization (FSG). During FSG, massive carbides are eliminated from the iron structure. At this point, the iron is rapidly cooled to 725...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., and titanium alloy joints, highlighting important details such as solidification and solid-state transformation structures and what they reveal about the welding process. Besides arc welding, it also discusses laser and electron beam welding methods, resistance and spot welding, and the welding of dissimilar...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... and tempered 8617 bar as in (a), except held 2 h at −75 °C (−100 °F) between quench and tempering. The structure is scattered carbide in a matrix of tempered martensite. Most of the retained austenite was transformed during low-temperature hold. Both 3% nital etch. 200× Fig. 30 Networks of subsurface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003723
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...×. Source: Ref 5 Fig. 11 Schematic binary phase diagram illustrating the effect of cooling rate on an alloy lying outside the equilibrium eutectic transformation line. Rapid solidification from S x to a metastable position (S*) can result in some eutectic structure being formed, because...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... compound develops during subsequent aging at temperatures above 300 °C (570 °F). Figure 6 shows the microstructure of water-quenched 36 mm (1.4 in.) diam U-0.75Ti bar. The outside of the bar ( Fig. 6a ) has transformed completely to lenticular alpha prime. The fineness of this structure increases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006280
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... (0.02 to 0.03% Fe) as cold rolled 50% and annealed. Source: Ref 10 Fig. 9 Microstructure of a partially transformed Cu-37.8at.%Zn alloy. The massive ζ phase can be seen both at the parent grain boundaries and inside the β grains. Source: Ref 4 Fig. 1 Copper-zinc binary phase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... Typical hardness gradient produced in gray iron by flame hardening Fig. 20 Distortion in gray iron cylinder liners after martempering and after conventional oil quenching. Before being measured, liners were furnace tempered for 2 h at 200 °C (400 °F). Fig. 18 Isothermal transformation...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003106
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Classification of cast irons by commercial designation, microstructure, and fracture Commercial designation Carbon-rich phase Matrix (a) Fracture Final structure after Gray iron Lamellar graphite P Gray Solidification Ductile iron Spheroidal graphite F, P, A Silver-gray Solidification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005942
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... (1.5 in.) in length Fig. 7 Conversion of as-cast pearlitic structure of unalloyed gray iron to ferrite and graphite by annealing. (a) As cast; 180 HB. (b) Annealed 1 h at 760 °C (1400 °F); 120 HB. Original magnification, 500× Fig. 17 Isothermal transformation diagrams of two cast...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... weld shown on left, with CO 2 laser-beam weld shown on right, in alloy of Cr eq /Ni eq = 1.8. Laser-beam weld on right is single-phase austenite formed as a product of massive transformation. (b) Ferritic structure formed in laser-beam weld of Cr eq /Ni eq = 2.0. Source: Ref 26 , 27...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003971
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... by Roll Forming and Hot Die Forging , J. Mater. Proc. Technol. , Vol 135 , 2003 , p 324 – 329 10.1016/S0924-0136(02)00864-6 5. Segal V.M. , Equal Channel Angular Extrusion: From Macromechanics to Structure Formation , Mater. Sci. Eng. A , Vol A271 , 1999 , p 322 – 333 10.1016...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... unusual effects of processing on structure and properties. The article explains these effects and concludes with a discussion on the applications of the ECAE. References References 1. Bridgeman P.W. , Studies in Large Plastic Flow and Fracture , McGraw-Hill , 1952 2. Segal V.M...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006296
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... to transform to α + Fe 3 C. In the case of normalized irons, the tempering process softens the pearlitic structure by coarsening the existing iron carbides. It is advisable to temper-quench-harden iron castings immediately in order to reduce residual stresses, reduce the probability of cracking, and reduce...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-temperature-transformation diagrams, also called isothermal transformation diagrams, are developed by heating small samples of steel to the temperature where austenite transformation structure is completely formed, that is, the austenitizing temperature (T A ), and then rapidly cooling to a temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... etched with Vilella’s reagent, revealing a pronounced dendritic structure with massive Cr 7 C 3 carbides and a martensitic matrix. Original magnification: (a) 50×, (b) 100×, (c) 200×, and (d) 500× Fig. 26 Microstructure of ASTM A532 class III, type A specimen modified with the addition of 0.6...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... α ′ Nonequilibrium phase due to martensitic transformation; hcp structure α″ Martensite with orthorhombic structure α 2 Ti 3 Al; exists over a wide range of aluminum content; has an ordered hexagonal structure, DO 13 ω A high-pressure allotrope of titanium with hexagonal structure...