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mass-conserving process

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.9781627081979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005968
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... from lot to lot and also between materials. Part-related contributions (intrinsic noise): These are part geometry and section-size variations. Process-related contributions (extrinsic noise): These include temperature uniformity as affected by process control and mass effects, time control...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... by transforming the carbon activity back into the number of carbon atoms in solution and further into the resulting mass percentage. Because nitriding and nitrocarburizing processes normally take place at temperatures where the iron is still in a ferritic phase (where the solubility of nitrogen and...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... temperature losses. Ways of conserving heat during vacuum processing are the retention of a slag layer on the molten steel surface, use of radiation shields, vessel preheating, supplemental heating arrangements, and optimization of processing time. The vacuum in most modern degassing systems is created by...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... significant advantages. Continuous processes provide commercial alternatives to conventional ingot casting. Among the more important incentives for continuous operation are: Reduce capital investment Improve recovery Eliminate process steps Conserve energy Promote product uniformity...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Unicast ceramic is used as a 6.4 to 13 mm (¼ to ½ in.) facing backed by a specially blended, coarse-sand aggregate for support. This technique sharply reduces mold cost by conserving the ceramic material, and it permits the mechanized production of molds. The Unicast process employs conventional pattern...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... deposition These changes are also strongly dependent on momentum and heat-transfer phenomena, which are themselves strongly coupled to mass transport. Numerous surface processes take place at the gas-solid interface, where gaseous species are transported and adsorbed. Adsorbed species may diffuse to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... properties and the component meet the designers' intent. The influence of manufacturing history on material performance is accounted for by using minimum values for material properties that contribute to the iterative process and result in overly conservative and inefficient designs. The lack of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... interpolation coefficients: (Eq 6) Λ n = ∑ i = 1 N ν n c ν i n The finite element method is used to solve the average conservation equations written for the total mass, the energy, the mass of solute, and the momentum at the scale of the casting ( Ref 36 , 37...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... molding is the only commercial structural composite process capable of satisfying the economic constraints of a mass-production industry. The process of thermoplastic compression molding (sometimes referred to as thermoplastic stamping) is attractive to the automotive industry because of the rapid cycle...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Ores, which consist of the primary valuable mineral, predominant gangue content, valuable by-products, and detrimental impurities, are extracted and directed to mineral processing. This article describes the mineral processing facilities, such as crushers, grinders, concentrators...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006261
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract This article provides information on nickel alloying elements, and the heat treatment processes of various nickel alloys for applications requiring corrosion resistance and/or high-temperature strength. These processes are homogenization, annealing, solution annealing, solution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... of Petrofer GmbH Irrespective of the probe diameter and mass of the probe, the temperature gradient method exhibits two very important features: It clearly displays the heat-extraction dynamic during the whole quenching process. It shows the initial heat-flux density ( q in ) at the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005420
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... practical benefit to improving casting processes is growing. Accurate calculation of fluid velocities, temperature, microstructure, and stress evolution is just the first step. Achieving tangible improvements to casting processes requires the accurate prediction of actual casting defects and product...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... MODEL of the solidification of a metal alloy involves coupling of energy, species, mass, and momentum conservation equations ( Ref 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ). This article examines critical features of four key areas of modeling transport phenomena associated with casting processes: Heat and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001284
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., as depicted in Fig. 3(a) . This diagram shows the driving forces necessary to sustain the flux for mass-transport processes (Δμ D ) and surface reactions (Δμ s ). Fig. 3 Chemical potential in metal-organic chemical vapor deposition processes. (a) General case. (b) Mass-transport limited growth...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... as raw materials for other processes. This article describes the recycling of in-process scrap and industrial wastes (fly ash, red mud, metallurgical waste, and other waste products), and applications of these recycled products. It focuses on environmental regulations such as Resource Conservation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... uniform and accurately controlled furnace, and the extension is measured and compensated for the small expansion of the silica. Density is obtained quite easily as a function of temperature once the CTE as a function of temperature is known, based on conservation of mass. Thermal conductivity and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... through a die, then it can be, and probably has been, extruded. In terms of material and energy conservation, the net shape and continuous forming capabilities of the extrusion process are very attractive. Extrusion has been used for many years in the clay/porcelain industries. More recently, it has...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., precious metal overlays, tungsten, molybdenum, and aluminum, and composite materials. It concludes by discussing the composite manufacturing methods such as infiltration, press-sinter, press-sinter-repress process, press-sinter-extrude process, internal oxidation, and preoxidized-press-sinter-extrude...