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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001344
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... Abstract This article presents an introduction to brazing, including information on its mechanics, advantages, and limitations. It reviews soldering with emphasis on chronology, solder metals, and flux technology. The article also provides useful information on mass, wave, and drag soldering...
Book Chapter

By Paul T. Vianco
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... SOLDERING is one of the primary techniques for mass assembly of printed wiring boards involving through holes, surface mount devices, or a combination of these two technologies. A schematic of the wave soldering process is shown in Fig. 1 . A solder “fountain” or “wave” is created by a pump located...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001399
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... Abstract Hot gas soldering is a process that is commonly used in applications where the workpiece thermal mass is small and the melting temperature of the solder is relatively low. This article describes the characteristics of hot gas heating that are critical to its effectiveness in soldering...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
..., namely, vapor-phase reflow, area conduction, and infrared heating. These three techniques are considered as mass reflow techniques, because all of the solderable interconnections on the surface of a printed wiring board (PWB) assembly are brought through the reflow heating cycle simultaneously...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001400
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... for the use of solder preforms or paste; these items are introduced into the joint area prior to applying heat. The amount of solder is much less than the mass of the parts, so the effect of the preform on the induction heating process is typically negligible. Space restraints, as well as the danger...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001398
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... in terms of thermal mass, emissivity, contamination, presence of internal thermal barriers, and heat-sinking efficiency, an infrared (IR) detector was added to create an “intelligent” laser soldering system. This system enables the precise control of heat input to the joint, because the IR “eye...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001397
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... must be confined to a specific area. The oxidation attributed to heating of the solder must be minimized. The components to be joined are inaccessible with a conventional soldering iron. The bead produced can be adapted to automated processing/mass production methods. Equipment...
Book Chapter

By Roy E. Beal
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... shops, as well as high-rate production situations. Therefore, the parts joined by dip soldering vary from individually designed products to mass-produced items. Dip soldering is ideal for the production of prototype engineered products, which are often made for test purposes. The process also can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... to be soldered. This may require directing the torch to a larger mass component of an assembly. Because the filler metal will flow to the hottest portion of an assembly, the flame should be applied so that the filler metal will flow in the intended direction. Also, movement of the torch is required to avoid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... Abstract Soldering technology has been used in applications ranging from the packaging of integrated circuit chips to the fabrication of industrial heat exchangers and consequently in structural or electronic applications. This article provides information on various soldering parameters...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005856
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... can be used to do this: The materials (base metals) to be joined The mass of the materials to be joined The shape of the materials to be joined The production rate required The heating rate must also be appropriate for brazing or soldering—neither too fast nor too slow...
Book Chapter

By Mark Cowell
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... iron used in this process continues to be popular. It is the most cost-effective tool for: Prototype and short production jobs Rework of defective solder joints and/or components Soldering of components that are too delicate or specialized to solder using mass-production techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001346
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... Activated rosin fluxes were developed to provide more chemically active fluxes for mass-produced electronics, such as packaged components. Most mass-produced electronics are manufactured using RMA fluxes. The use of chlorides in these fluxes requires effective cleaning after soldering to prevent corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001450
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... Abstract This article focuses on the various criteria considered in the selection of product forms, joint types, solders, and filler metals for brazing and soldering of base material components. brazing brazing filler metals joints material selection soldering solders...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Lowest-melting (eutectic) solder for electronics Soft solder (60-40 solder) ASTM B 32, grade Sn60 60 Sn, 0.50 Sb, 0.015 Ag, 0.005 Al, 0.03 As, 0.25 Bi, 0.001 Cd, 0.08 Cu, 0.02 Fe, 40 Pb nominal, 0.005 Zn Solder for electronic and electrical work, especially mass soldering of printed circuits...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003205
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... solidified, diffusion between the base metal and soldered joint continues until the completed part is cooled to room temperature. Mechanical properties of soldered joints, therefore, are generally related to, but not equivalent to, the mechanical properties of the soldering alloy. Mass soldering by wave...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001479
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... to a soldered joint using laser energy. The quantity of heat radiated by the joint is then measured and used to calculate the mass of the soldered joint. This nondestructive method of evaluation is useful in determining excessive solder, insufficient solder, and porosity. It cannot be used to examine joint...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... of solder that fail to coagulate with the larger solder mass in the joint ( Fig. 2 ). Solder balls that are not removed by the cleaning process can cause short circuits during device electrical operation. Fig. 2 Scanning electron micrograph of solder balls on a leadless ceramic chip carrier solder...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001076
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... Soft solder (60-40 solder) B 32, Grade Sn60 QQ-S-571, Grade Sn60 BS 219, Grade K DIN 1707, LSn 60Pb(Sb) 60 Sn, 40 Pb 190 374 183 361 Solder for electronic and electrical work, especially mass soldering of printed circuits (a) See the section “Pure Tin” in this article for minimum tin...
Book Chapter

By K. Sampath
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002488
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... between the base metal and soldered joint continues until the completed part is cooled to room temperature. Mechanical properties of soldered joints, therefore, are generally related to, but not equivalent to, the mechanical properties of the soldering alloy. Mass soldering by wave, drag, or dip...