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martensitic nucleation theory

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005435
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., and shuffle transitions. The article reviews the application of the Ginzburg-Landau approach to rigorous solutions for issues in the structure of a martensitic nucleus based on the martensitic nucleation theory. The three basic behavior modes of martensitic growth, such as elastic, elastic/plastic, and fully...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003730
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...., pearlite, bainite, or tempered martensite in the ferrous system). The most important mechanisms involved in developing these microstructures are diffusion, nucleation, and growth. However, not all transformations rely on diffusion (e.g., martensite), and not every transformation includes nucleation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... orientations according to plasticity theory (i.e., the high Taylor factor orientations, Fig. 17 ), as well as crystallites near grain boundaries, shear bands, and second-phase particles. It has frequently been observed that nucleation is favored in these regions of high stored energy ( Ref 35 , 36...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003736
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract Martensite is a metastable structure that forms during athermal (nonisothermal) conditions. This article reviews the crystallographic theory, morphologies, orientation relationships, habit plane, and transformation temperature of ferrous martensite microstructures. It examines...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
...) Spheroidal graphite iron, 30 mm diam bar. Courtesy of R. Boeri and G. Rivera Nucleation in cast alloys is heterogeneous, that is, on nuclei having a different chemical composition than the solidifying iron-carbon alloy. Predictions with the classic theory of heterogeneous nucleation, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003723
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... are useful in determining the conditions for proper heat treatment (solid-state transformation) of metals and alloys. The influence of the mechanisms of phase nucleation and growth on the morphology, size, and distribution of grains and second phases is also described. bainite eutectic alloy system...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
.... annealing castings deformation diffusion coefficient grain growth heat treatment heterogeneous nucleation homogeneous nucleation homogenization isothermal transformation nonferrous metals precipitation hardening recrystallization recrystallization temperature solid-state phase transformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... Cast Iron Research Association El elongation BFI bright- eld illumination ESt steel electrodes B-M Beraha-martensite f feed rate, mass fraction, resonant frequency, friction BUE build-up edge factor c grain aspect ratio, speci c heat, fatigue ductility fa fraction of a phase exponent fi internal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005962
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... is not contiguous with the proeutectoid phase field, and significant undercooling is required to nucleate the bainitic microstructures. At sufficiently low temperatures of below approximately 300 °C (570 °F), the martensite-start (M s ) temperature region is present. The microstructure of this grade of steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005511
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... models. However, in the KWN model, the continuous particle size distribution (PSD) is divided into a large number of size classes, and the program takes a simulation step at every sample time hit. At each simulation step, the number of new particles is first calculated using classical nucleation theory...
Book Chapter

By J.Y. Shi
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... , 9 ). How to further improve the quality and lengthen the life of mechanical parts thus remains a subject of research on the part of materials and heat treatment workers. With the depth of research into the morphology of martensite, as well as the influence of retained austenite and carbides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... of monitoring via an inspection scheme. This article begins with a discussion on the stages of the fatigue damage process. It describes hierarchical multistage fatigue modeling and several key points regarding the physics of crack nucleation and microstructurally small crack propagation in the HCF regime...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... Impurities (P, S, As, Sn) Decrease K Ic by temper embrittlement Sulfide inclusions and coarse carbides Decrease K Ic by promoting crack or void nucleation High carbon content (>0.25%) Decrease K Ic by easily nucleating cleavage Twinned martensite Decrease K Ic due to brittleness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4F
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v4F.a0007001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-450-5
.... As a general rule, a quenchant must produce a cooling rate equivalent to, or faster than, the rate indicated by the nose of the pearlite transformation curve to maximize the formation of martensite. Looking at the TTT diagram shown in Fig. 1 , it is possible to calculate the critical cooling rate: (Eq 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
.... The explicit nucleation algorithm does not specify how to compute Δ F * in Eq 25 , the activation energy of nucleation. This gives the flexibility to choose any nucleation theory for the model. In the classical nucleation theory for homogeneous nucleation, for example: (Eq 27) Δ F * = α σ d...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005948
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... martensitic matrix in a manner similar to that achieved with the molybdenum-bearing Ni 3 Mo precipitate. Nucleation Rates It has generally been observed that no incubation period accompanies the precipitation reaction in maraging steels. This behavior is evident in Fig. 6 , which shows...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... ferrite heat treatment iron-carbon phase diagram isothermal transformation martensite pearlite residual stress steel thermal stress Introduction Heat treatment is roughly defined as controlled heating and cooling of a solid material, so as to change the microstructure and obtain specific...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
..., including direct nucleation and growth of α precipitates from supersaturated β matrix ( Ref 5 ) or defect-mediated nucleation and growth by intermediate phases (such as martensite α′, or α″, and metastable ω phase) ( Ref 5 , 6 ), precursory concentration modulation within the β-phase matrix ( Ref 7 , 8...
Book Chapter

By Bruce Craig
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003634
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract Hydrogen damage is a form of environmentally assisted failure that results from the combined action of hydrogen and residual or applied tensile stress. This article classifies the various forms of hydrogen damage and summarizes the theories that seek to explain these types...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002388
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
...; N 2 O 4 Magnesium alloys Aqueous Cl − solutions Zirconium alloys Aqueous Cl − solutions; organic liquids; I 2 at 350 °C (660 °F) Source: Ref 1 Changing any of these environmental parameters may significantly affect the crack nucleation process or the rate of crack...