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manufacturing defects

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... material substitutions or process changes during manufacture and the misuse, abuse, or occurrence of complex stress fields in service. A seemingly innocent substitution of material resulted in distortion of small volute springs made of cold-worked spring-tempered Inconel. Normally, the material was...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...). Specimen etched with nital Abrasive wheels should be selected according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Wheels consist of abrasive particles, chiefly alumina or silicon carbide (SiC), and filler in a binder material that may be a resin, rubber, or a mixture of resin and rubber. Alumina is the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Additive manufacturing (AM) is the process of joining materials to make parts from three-dimensional (3D) model data, usually layer upon layer, as opposed to subtractive manufacturing and formative manufacturing methodologies. This article discusses various defects in AM components...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... presents drawbacks and limitations of these techniques. Generic flaw types and flaw-producing mechanisms are listed in a table. The article discusses metal-to-metal defects, adherend defects, honeycomb sandwich defects, repair defects, and in-service defects. It reviews the methods applicable to the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... analysis, and image interpretation. The article provides information on the uses of machine vision systems in three categories of manufacturing applications: visual inspection, identification of parts, and guidance and control applications. machine vision quality control image acquisition visual...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...-destructive evaluation probability of detection NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION (NDE) methods described in this Volume are used extensively for the inspection of multiple items to detect defects either during or after manufacturing. This ensures there are no defects that could compromise the intended...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... manufacturing sequence. (c) One lot, in manufacturing sequence “first-in, first-out” (FIFO). In comparison with lots having normal production scatter (b), even parts with very small defects are sorted out in production lots showing low production scatter (c), but only parts with some greater defects are sorted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... the methods for using Rayleigh waves for defect detection and materials characterization, alongside nonlinear ultrasonic inspection and surface acoustic wave (SAW) microscopy. The article concludes with information on the standards that use Rayleigh waves for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006476
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... of heat treatment defects, including the evaluation of case depth. case depth gears grinding retemper burns heat treatment magnetic Barkhausen noise nondestructive inspection residual stress grinding retemper burn TRADITIONALLY, GEARS are subject to similar defects and testing as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006441
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... contexts in which its use is growing in other evolving applications. It discusses the various guided wave modes and their selection criteria. The article provides information on considerations for mode control and the sensitivity of the GWT to the defect. It also shows some examples of advanced GWT...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006462
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... detected with high confidence? Historically, NDT searched for defects that were “manufactured into” a component. However, advances in the understanding of fatigue crack initiation and in the maturation of fracture mechanics evolved structural design philosophy from “safe-life” to “damage tolerant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... defects in metals, ceramics, glasses, polymers, and composites with examples. acoustic microscopy ceramics C-mode scanning acoustic microscopy composites glasses polymers scanning acoustic microscopy scanning laser acoustic microscopy polymers THE GENERAL TERM acoustic microscopy is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... the structural test applications of acoustic emission inspection to find defects and to assess or ensure structural integrity. acoustic emission inspection nondestructive testing metal-matrix composites quality control defects structural integrity ACOUSTIC EMISSION (AE) is the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006452
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... posed. In the context of arrays and imaging, questions that are valid but relate to fundamentally different performance attributes are: What is the smallest defect that can be detected? How close can two defects be for them to be resolvable? How accurately can a defect be classified and sized...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... to inspect and maintain the component, rather than just the initial costs. This will ultimately lead to more sophisticated networking of models, as shown in Fig. 20 . Figure 20 illustrates a number of factors that must be added to the traditional computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... provides information on the dimension-measurement applications of ultrasonic inspection methods. ultrasonic imaging inspection area-amplitude blocks distance-amplitude blocks calibration defects WHEN ULTRASONIC NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING (NDT) was first applied, it was a workmanship standard and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...). Fig. 3 Principle for inducing eddy currents in a conducting material. (a) Without defect. (b) With flaw One of the most important parameters in the eddy-current method is the depth of penetration, δ, as defined by: (Eq 3) δ = 1 π f μ 0 μ r σ where f is the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006438
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... the ability of the component to perform its design function. The most common application is detection of flaws caused either by manufacturing anomalies, service or environmental stresses, or natural material aging. More generally, applications may include estimation of mechanical and material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...., aeronautical, power generation, welding, and foundry). Various organizations, such as the American Welding Society and the American Society for Nondestructive Testing, and specialized companies manufacture plate and pipe specimens with reference sample defects (manufactured flawed specimens). These defects...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... section describes NDE methods commonly used for (MMCs). Defects and anomalies are generated unintentionally during two different situations: the manufacturing and the service life of the composite. Table 7 lists the possible defects in MMCs ( Ref 110 ). Table 8 lists some nondestructive testing...