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manual stereological analysis

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...Abstract Abstract This article reviews the essential parts of the complex process of quantitative image analysis to assist automatic image analysis in laboratories. It describes the basic difference between the bias of classical manual stereological analysis and quantitative image analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...-Phase Constituent Content of Metals by Automatic Image Analysis” ( Ref 42 , 44 , 47 , 48 ). ASTM E 1122 produces JK ratings by image analysis that overcome most of the weaknesses of manual JK ratings (in 2006, ASTM E 1122 information was merged into ASTM E 45). ASTM E 1245 is a stereological approach...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... , 1968 4. Underwood E.E. , Quantitative Stereology , Addison-Wesley , 1970 5. Weibel E.R. , Stereological Methods , Vol 1 and 2 , Academic Press , 1979 , 1980 6. DeHoff R.T. , Quantitative Microstructural Analysis , STP 430 , ASTM , Philadelphia , 1968 , p...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... , Quantitative Stereology , Addison-Wesley , 1970 3. Hilliard J.E. and Cahn J.W. , An Evaluation of Procedures in Quantitative Metallography for Volume-Fraction Analysis , Trans. AIME , Vol 221 , April 1961 , p 344 – 352 4. Vander Voort G.F. and Roosz...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... theoretical foundations that are anchored in the disciplines of stochastic geometry ( Ref 1 ), integral geometry and global analysis ( Ref 2 ), and differential geometry ( Ref 3 ). The stereological methods are completely general, and therefore they are also applicable to microstructures encountered in many...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
.... , Quantitative Analysis of Fractographic Features in a 4340 Steel , in Acta Stereologica , Kališnik M. , Ed., Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Stereology , Gainesville, FL , 1983 , p 65 – 70 37. Underwood E.E. , Practical Solutions to Stereological Problems...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003720
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...Abstract Abstract This article provides an overview of the origin of metallography. It presents information on how to select a section from a specimen and prepare it for macroscopic analysis. The article describes the macroscopic analysis of steel fracture surfaces with emphasis on ductile...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for quantitative characterization. Development of the scanning electron microscope (SEM), and more recently, of powerful digital image analysis equipment, has led to significant advances in quantitative fractography. Numerous quantitative correlations between the material properties such as strength, ductility...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... of experimentally validated finite-element models for analyzing the classes of shearing processes. The article also discusses the use of microstructural characterization with stereology to render three-dimensional volumetric parameters. It concludes with information on the numerical simulation of an edge-shearing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article provides a discussion on the metallographic techniques used for failure analysis, and on fracture examination in materials, with illustrations. It discusses various metallographic specimen preparation techniques, namely, sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
..., or difficult to manufacture location Quantitative analysis: Part and cross section are not used to represent the typical or desired microstructure. Stereological or image analysis testing is usually performed on these specimens. Figures 2 and 3 represent cross-sectional areas that could fit...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... and Shiflet combined serial sectioning, scanning electron microscopy, manual electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis, and computerized 3-D reconstruction techniques in a high-manganese steel to produce digital 3-D reconstructions of pearlite colonies in which the crystallographic orientation of each...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... (45 lbf) normal to the sample is also necessary. Although it is possible to grind and polish manually, the effort and time required as well as requirements for reproducibility generally rule out these techniques ( Ref 1 ). All the micrographs in this article are from specimens prepared using...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... , Microstructural Index to Quantify Thermal Spray Deposit Microstructures Using Image Analysis , J. Therm. Spray Technol. , Vol 7 ( No. 2 ), June 1998 , p 229 – 241 10.1361/105996398770350972 15. Fowler D.B. , A Method for Evaluating Plasma Spray Coating Porosity Content Using Stereological...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... 47. Wojnar L. , Analysis and Interpretation , Practical Guide to Image Analysis , ASM International , Materials Park, OH , 2000 , p 145 – 202 48. Underwood E.E. , Quantitative Stereology , Addison-Wesley Publishing Company , Menlo Park, CA , 1970 49. Goldstein...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005729
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... with a mineral filler. (g) A stabilized rigid polyvinyl chloride. For example, a mixture of 100 parts of a e-making grade of polyvinyl chloride, 2 parts dibasic lead phosphate, and 2 parts tribasic lead sulfate. (h) Must not exceed 200 °C (390 °F). Source: Ref 1 Energy-dispersive analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
..., and coarsening, are now being investigated extensively. The incorporation of these principles into the more traditional thermal, fluid flow, and stress models enable quantitative predictions of microstructure and mechanical properties, such as tensile strength and elongation. The coupling of mechanical analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627082136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627081788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003737
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... for this purpose. If image analysis measurements are to be performed, relief must be minimized, or the stereological rules, unless corrected to account for the etch depth, are invalid, and measurement bias will result. The particles can be observed in bright-field illumination by color contrast, which is useful...