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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Electroforming is the process by which articles or shapes can be exactly reproduced by electrodeposition on a mandrel or form that is later removed, leaving a precise duplicate of the original. This article discusses electroforming applications, and explains electroforming of nickel...
Book Chapter

By Robert Bolin
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003982
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., radial-axial horizontal rolling machines, four-mandrel mechanical table mills, three-mandrel table mills, and automatic radial-axial multiple-mandrel ring mills. The article provides a discussion on the process control technology and ancillary operations of ring rolling. It describes the methods of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003983
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... describes the types of rotary swaging machines, auxiliary tools, and swaging dies used for rotary swaging and the procedure for determining the side clearance in swaging dies. The article presents an overview of automated swaging machines and tube swaging, with and without a mandrel. It analyzes the effect...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... design factors, and techniques to produce aerodynamic surfaces, improve surface smoothness, and avoid slipping and bridging of filament. The article discusses tooling and the equipment used in the filament winding process, namely, mandrel design, winding machines, tensioners, and ovens. curing...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003178
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Table 2 Minimum practical inside radii for the cold draw bending of annealed steel or copper round tubing to 180° Tubing outside diameter Minimum practical inside radius (a) Grooved bending tools Cylindrical bending block without mandrel; ratio, <30 (b) (poor conditions) With...
Book Chapter

By H.W. Sizek
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003984
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., flats, or other axisymmetric bars can also be produced with a radial forge. Coupled with mandrels, tubing and other hollows can also be produced on the radial forge. In part production, radial forging is used to form axial symmetric solids or hollows with complex external and/or internal contours. These...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004014
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... compression to the outside diameter of a cylindrical preform, attached to a rotating mandrel. Compression is applied by a combination of axial and radial forces using a set of three or four rollers that are simultaneously moved along the length of the rotating preform, flowing the material plastically in both...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... complex axisymmetric shape while it is rotated about its axis of symmetry. Alternatively, roll forming can be performed with a combination of rollers and shaped mandrels. Roll forming can be performed axially or using a combination of radial and axial steps. Axial roll forming is shown schematically in...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., to produce a smoother surface or closer dimensional tolerances, or to modify mechanical properties. The process most commonly used is cold drawing, in which the descaled hot-worked tube is plastically deformed by drawing it through a die and over a mandrel (mandrel drawing) to work both exterior and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... drawing without a mandrel ( Fig. 3 ), also called tube sinking, the tube is initially pointed to facilitate feeding through the die; it is then reduced in outside diameter while the wall thickness and the tube length are increased. The magnitudes of thickness increase and tube elongation depend on the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... pads, and removable elastomeric mandrels have been used for years as auxiliary materials in combination with conventional molding materials and molding processes. Thermal expansion molding, however, is a recently developed process in which elastomeric tooling details are constrained within a rigid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... is used for babbitting of flat surfaces (thrust plates or pads, etc.) and journal bearings. The latter may not lend themselves to centrifugal casting because of odd shapes, equipment requirements, or tooling costs. Static babbitting requires a babbitting mandrel to form the babbitt in the bearing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003978
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... expensive, and such forgings are produced only under unusual circumstances. Generally, most open-die forgings can be grouped into four categories: cylindrical (shaft-type forgings symmetrical about the longitudinal axis), upset or pancake forgings, hollow (including mandrel and shell-type forgings), and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003132
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... (Part 6, Specifications Index), published by the Copper Development Association Inc. Extrusion of copper and copper alloy tube shells is done by heating a billet of material above the recrystallization temperature, and then forcing material through an orifice in a die and over a mandrel held in...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... setup is shown in Fig. 14 . Molten polymer from the extruder head enters the die, where it flows around a mandrel and emerges through a ring-shaped opening in the form of a tube. The tube is expanded into a bubble of the required diameter by the pressure of internal air admitted through the center of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003040
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... yarns are interlaced. Braiding has many similarities to filament winding. Dry or prepreg yarns, tapes, or tow can be braided over a rotating and removable form or mandrel in a controlled manner to assume various shapes, fiber orientations, and fiber volume fractions. Although braiding cannot achieve...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... parison thickness uses up and down movements of the mandrel during the drop cycle. Figure 3 depicts both convergent and divergent tooling commonly used for parison programming and thickness adjustment. Material deposits in the accumulator and scratches or imperfections on the mandrel or die ring cause...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003036
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... fiber-reinforced plastic parts A growing segment of the fiber-reinforced plastic market is corrosion-resistant ducts or air ducts for aircraft. These parts are frequently molded on consumable, breakaway plaster mandrels that are mechanically removed from the part. An alternative is to use precast...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., high tensile stresses develop in the core, resulting in core fracture, as indicated in Fig. 13 ( Ref 4 ). On the other hand, if the interface is weak, only the sleeve deforms, with the core acting as a mandrel in tube extrusion. These observations are in keeping with the predictions summarized in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003996
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Forgeability and forging temperatures of various aluminum alloys Aluminum alloys are produced by all of the current forging methods available, including open-die (or hand) forging, closed-die forging, upsetting, roll forging, orbital (rotary) forging, spin forging, mandrel forging, ring rolling...