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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... SEM view of fatigue striations in medium-density polyethylene, laboratory tested at 0.5 Hz with maximum stress 30% of the yield strength. Crack growth is upward in this view. Original magnification 200×. Source: Ref 4 Fig. 50 Features observed on fatigue area of polymethyl methacrylate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... and scanning electron micrographs of the high-temperature superconductor barium-yttrium copper oxide at increasing magnification. Original magnifications: (a) 70×, (b) and (d) 300×, (c) and (e) 1400×, and (f) 2800× Fig. 7 Airy rings resulting from the diffraction of a laser beam by small pinholes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... of a different area, and at higher magnification, of the fracture surface shown in Fig. 9, 10 and. This is a remarkably complex area, containing many small and varied quasi-cleavage facets and exhibiting a number of spheroidal inclusions. The most prominent feature is the high peak at arrow 1, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... magnification, × Polaroid or contact print 4- × 6-in. 3.5- × 5-in. prints from 35 mm 8- × 10-in. 8- × 12-in. prints from 35 mm Depth of field for resolution (6 line- pairs/mm), mm Depth of field for resolution (3 line- pairs/mm), mm f /number Camera magnification, × f /number Camera magnification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... examination can be performed with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) over the same magnification range as the LM, but examination with the latter is more efficient. This article describes the major operations in the preparation of metallographic specimens, namely sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... fatigue crack initiation. Source: Ref 12 Fig. 7 Unetched metallographic cross section through gear tooth showing subsurface fatigue crack formed by rolling contact. Original magnification: 132×. Source: Ref 12 Fig. 8 Unetched metallographic cross section through hardened steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) approach enables essentially simultaneous examination of microstructural features through imaging from lower magnifications to atomic resolution and the acquisition of chemical and crystallographic information from small regions of the thin specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... to be martensite. (a) As-polished. Original magnification: 50×. (b) 2% nital etch. Original magnification: 100×. (c) 2% nital etch. Original magnification: 200×. (d) 2% nital etch. Original magnification: 500×. (e) 10% sodium metabisulfite etch. Original magnification: 200×. (f) 10% sodium metabisulfite etch...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... alloy (a) Equal parts of concentrated NH 4 OH and water with 2–4 drops of H 2 O 2 (30%) per 10 mL of solution Fig. 21 Same as Fig. 20 , except at higher magnification, which shows that the eutectic in the interdendritic area (discrete particles of antimony in matrix of lead-rich solid...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... at magnifications above approximately 500×. The SEM allows routine examinations at magnifications up to 10,000×. The primary objective of the visual inspection is to determine the location of the fracture origin and evaluate how the crack propagated through the alloy. Knowing where it started and where it ended...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
...-chromium irons 3. Nital, 2% 2 mL nitric acid, 98 mL ethanol Dip etch for 2–10 s Observation of ferritic grain boundaries at high magnification 4. Glyceregia (modified) 3 parts glycerine; 2 parts hydrochloric acid (HCl), and 1 part nitric acid (HNO 3 ) Mix fresh; do not store. Use by swabbing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., and viewed with polarized light illumination. These micrographs show the effect of the cooling rate from the inside to the outside locations of the ingot. The outer surface shows a finer acicular structure due to the faster cooling rate. Original magnification: 50×. Fig. 2 Zircaloy 4 welded sheet...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003737
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... etch: HCl. Original magnification 200× Fig. 75 Haynes 31, as-cast. Structure consists of large, primary M 7 C 3 particles and grain-boundary M 23 C 6 in an α (face-centered cubic) matrix. Electrolytic etch: 2% CrO 3 . Original magnification 400× Fig. 76 Haynes 151, as-cast...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005344
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... Fig. 1 Inclusion (arrow) on machined surface of a casting Fig. 2 Fracture through inclusion (arrow) shown in Fig. 1 . Original magnification: 35× Fig. 3 Scanning electron micrograph of inclusion shown in Fig. 2 . Original magnification: 150×. Area identified as “1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... 500 mL alcohol 30 g FeCl 3 0.5 g SnCl 3 1.9 g CuCl 2 40 mL hydrochloric acid (concentrated) Macroetch. Use at room temperature and immerse for approximately 20 s. Fig. 35 Manganese sulfide inclusions in resulfurized free-machining steel. Unetched (as-polished). Original magnification...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... requires knowledge of the foil thickness. Measurements of replicas using stereological procedures produce little difficulty, but measurement statistics suffer when high magnifications are involved. Use of the scanning electron microscope involves special problems. For example, if the sample surface...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in.) in diameter. Magnification usually is 3 to 4×, but magnifying power up to 50× is available. The illumination system is either an incandescent lamp located at the distal end ( Fig. 1 a) or a light guide bundle made of optical fibers ( Fig. 1 c), which conduct light from an external source. Rigid borescopes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Fig. 57 Ferrite-pearlite microstructure of poorly prepared (a) and properly prepared (b) 10B21 as-rolled carbon-steel specimen etched using 2% nital and viewed using bright field. Magnification: 1000× Fig. 58 Backscattered electron SEM images of poorly prepared (a) and properly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... enlarged in Fig. 1006 . SEM (gold shadowed), 50× Fig. 1006 Area outlined by the rectangle in Fig. 1005 , as seen at ten times the magnification there. It is apparent that the matrix contained many second-phase particles that have undergone brittle fracture (arrows). The surface is quite complex...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... , and 200 mL 95% ethanol or 95% methanol. Original magnification 250× Fig. 37 Thin-foil electron micrograph of a twin band in iron deformed 5% in tension at −195 °C (−320 °F) showing both of the boundaries (at A ), several diagonal internal walls (at B ), and a boundary indentation (at C...