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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) approach enables essentially simultaneous examination of microstructural features through imaging from lower magnifications to atomic resolution and the acquisition of chemical and crystallographic information from small regions of the thin...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract The application of transmission electron microscope to the study of fracture surfaces and related phenomena has made it possible to obtain magnifications and depths of field much greater than those possible with light (optical) microscopes. This article reviews the methods for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article discusses the preparation of photomacrographs of fracture surfaces. It provides useful information on the equipment used, such as view cameras, 35-mm single-lens-reflex cameras, and stereomicroscopes. The article describes the role of lenses, focusing, camera magnification...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005344
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... surface of a casting Fig. 2 Fracture through inclusion (arrow) shown in Fig. 1 . Original magnification: 35× Fig. 3 Scanning electron micrograph of inclusion shown in Fig. 2 . Original magnification: 150×. Area identified as “1” is the inclusion while area “2” is the surrounding...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... fine details that are characteristic of ductile rupture, transgranular brittle fracture, intergranular fracture or fatigue, and even some flaws, are not discernible with the unaided eye or with the optical/digital microscope. These features can only be properly observed when examined at magnifications...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... electron (BE) display of sulfur concrete with noninterconnecting voids, 17×. Fig. 1282 : Higher-magnification view of portion of field in Fig. 1281 has a noninterconnecting void at its center. BE image, 170× Fig. 1283 : The structure within a void region. BE image, 165×. Fig. 1284 : Fractograph shows...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000614
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... inclusions of Ti(C,N). The matrix did not adhere to these inclusions, which allowed the voids to open early in the fracture process and to grow large. See Fig. 801 for a higher-magnification view of the area in the rectangle. SEM, 520× Fig. 801 Higher-magnification view of the area in the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000613
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... in an unnotched specimen of AISI H11 tool steel heat treated to a tensile strength of 2041 MPa (296 ksi) and 48% reduction of area. Note radial features between fibrous origin (just right of center) and shear lip. See also Fig. 775 and 776 for higher-magnification views of this fracture. 9...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... portion that was subsequently produced in air. See Fig. 868 , 869 , 870 , and 871 for higher-magnification views of the portions produced in hydrogen and in air, and of the transition between them. SEM, 100× Fig. 868 View of an area of the fracture surface in Fig. 867 that shows the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0005697
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...) per square inch kV kilovolt L Length L liter lb pound LME liquid-metal embrittlement ln natural logarithm (base e ) m meter M molar solution; magnification M c camera magnification M e enlarging magnification M f...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000612
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... of an area in the flat, central region of the fracture surface in Fig. 720 , showing the equiaxed dimples of rather uniform size that are expected in this type of fracture. The scattered ridges produce the fibrous appearance seen at low magnification ( Fig. 720 ). See also Fig. 722 , a higher...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... the images appear three dimensional. In addition, a broad range of magnifications (10 to 30,000×) facilitates the correlation of macro- and microscopic images. The scanning electron microscope also has analytical capabilities. Among the data signals released during examination are x-rays that...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000625
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Fig. 1251 and 1252 for higher-magnification views of the areas outlined by the large and small rectangles, respectively. See also Fig. 1254 . SEM, 75× Fig. 1251 Higher-magnification view of the area in the larger rectangle in Fig. 1250 . At A are two transversely oriented features that...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... samples) or hydrogen at 35 MPa (5 ksi) and room temperature. Cross-head speed, 2.12 μ/s; notched strength ratio H 2 /He, 0.14. Fig. 828 : Fracture surface of control sample tested in helium. 4.6× Fig. 829 : Higher-magnification view of fracture surface in Fig. 828 . Note ductile failure mode. SEM, 95...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... nonimaging inspection applications using optical sensors. Magnifying systems are used in visual reference gaging. When tolerances are too tight to judge by eye alone, optical comparators or toolmakers' microscopes are used to achieve magnifications ranging from 5 to 500×. Rigid borescopes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... ultramicrostructure. Macrostructure can be seen with the human eye and using stereo-zoom microscopes, generally up to a maximum of 20 to 100× magnification. Light microscopes usually cover the range from 50 to 1000×, but can reach 1500× with the use of oil-immersion lenses. Above 1000×, structure is examined using...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... (roughened areas), which have propagated along the length of a specimen of annealed steel sheet that was tested in tension. Not polished, not etched. Actual size The transition from undeformed to deformed material at the Lüders front can be seen at low magnification ( Fig. 12 ). At higher magnification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Fig. 965 ), which are parallel to the fracture surface. See also Fig. 966 and 967 . SEM views of two portions of the fracture surface of the cylinder in Fig. 964 . These views, at higher magnification than Fig. 965 , also show the crack arrests, the offets between adjoining stress-corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000623
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... smoother surface (compare with Fig. 1103 ) reflects the effect of oxidation. SEM, 150×. Fig. 1112 : High-magnification view of a facet reveals parallel markings that indicate the underlying α-platelet microstructure and highlight the tendency for crack propagation to occur perpendicular to the α...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000620
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... in the rectangle and Fig. 923 for bracketed area at a magnification of 3×. Actual size Fig. 922 Fracture surface of the shoulder of the sand-cast carrier tray shown in the rectangle in Fig. 921 . The appearance of this surface suggests that fracture occurred in a brittle manner. The two...