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magnetic etching

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003737
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... pattern shows magnetic domains. 50% HCl. Original magnification, both 100× Fig. 3 Cast dendritic structure of IN-738 revealed using (a) Kalling's No. 2, (b) 15 mL HCl, 10 mL acetic acid, and 10 mL HNO 3 , (c) the Lucas electrolytic reagent (2 V dc, 10 s), and (d) Beraha's tint etch (50 mL HCl...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... sheet steels. Etching Grain Orientation Techniques used for preparing metallographic specimens of iron-nickel and iron-cobalt ferro-magnetic alloys generally are similar to those used for preparing specimens of other soft metals. Macroetching Mounting Mechanical Grinding and Polishing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of sulfuric acid to increase activity. m12 Magnetic alloys Co-Fe alloys 100 mL distilled water 100 mL HCl 32% 200 mL methanol 99.8% 5 mL HNO 3 65% 7 g FeCl 3 2 g copper (II) chloride 10–15 s Immersion or swab etching m13 Co-Sm alloys 100 mL distilled water 1 mL glacial acetic acid 1 mL nitric...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Techniques used for preparing metallographic specimens of iron-nickel and iron-cobalt ferro-magnetic alloys generally are similar to those used for preparing specimens of other soft metals. Because ferrites and garnets are electrical insulators, they cannot be electropolished or etched...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003749
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... , 1993 , p 539 – 545 70. Katz J.D. and Hurley G. , Etching Alumina with Molten Vanadium Pentoxide , J. Am. Ceram. Soc. , Vol 73 ( No. 7 ), July 1990 , p 2151 – 2152 10.1111/j.1151-2916.1990.tb05292.x 71. Bitter F. , On Inhomogeneities in the Magnetization...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Magnetism, Inst. of Physics Publ. , 1999 10. Schatt W. , Control of Textured Sheet by Means of Line Etching , Pract. Metallog., Vol 4 , Dec 1967 , p 620 – 627 11. Friede I. , A Modification of Line Etching According to Sved Using Alkaline Sodium Picrate on Transformer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006476
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... An ideal sample set would include more conditions in order to correct for any nonlinearity in the correlation. Examples are presented in Fig. 5 . Fig. 5 Example of correlation between nital etch (top row) and magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) signal amplitude (bottom row) on three gear teeth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006056
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... hardness (HRA). Courtesy of Materialprüfungsam (Materials Testing Agency) Dortmund, Germany. Fig. 1 Representative magnetization (hysteresis) curve for a ferromagnetic material. Figures a-d demonstrate the generation of the hysteresis curve and identification of magnetic saturation and coercive...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... was negligible compared to what should have been present. Etched with 3% nital. 700× Figure 17(a) shows an AISI M2 roughing tool that cracked during hardening (the cracks were accentuated with magnetic particles). Microstructural examination revealed an overaustenitized condition with a heavy grain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... (dark) can be seen. The amount of residual carbide was negligible compared to what should have been present. Etched with 3% nital. Original magnification: 700× Fig. 17 AISI M2 roughing tool that cracked just after heat treatment. (a) Cracks accentuated with magnetic particles. (b...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Surface Treatment Conductive Coating Contrast Enhancement by Coating Etching Topographic Contrast Compositional (Material) Contrast Electron Channeling Pattern and Orientation Contrast Magnetic Contrast Voltage Contrast and Electron Beam Induced Current Image Processing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... with secondary electron and x-ray detectors Instrument Features optimized Minimum area Comments Surface pictures Microchemical analysis Scanning electron microscope Surface pictures: above ∼500× on polished and etched samples; at all magnifications on high depth-of-field surfaces; accuracy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006633
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Instruments, Inc. Fig. 14 Schematics of (a) triangular cantilever beam with square pyramidal tips made of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition Si 3 N 4 , (b) rectangular cantilever beams with square pyramidal tips made of etched single-crystal silicon, and (c) rectangular cantilever stainless...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... 100 mL HCL 20 mL 3% H 2 O 2 Etch immediately after polishing, immerse, and swab 2–4 min Wrought/forged material Titanium and titanium alloys 10 mL HF 5 mL HNO 3 85 mL H 2 O Immerse 5–30 s General purpose 1 mL HF 200 mL H 2 O Immerse up to 5 s Stains alpha phase, alpha case...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... Diamond Rev. , 1969 , p 450 – 454 6. Kuppuswamy G. , Electrochemical Grinding: An Investigation of the Metal Removal Rate , Proc. 7th AIMTDR Conf. , ( Coimbatore, India ), 1976 , p 337 – 340 7. Kuppuswamy G. and Venkatesh V.C. , Wheel Parameters and Effect of Magnetic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... for this figure. Fig. 4 Nominal configuration of standard test bar used for chemical method of carbon gradient and case-depth measurement. The 25 mm (1 in.) diameter end is finished with 80-grit sandpaper. Fig. 19 Nitrided case etched with 2% nital. Original magnification: 50×. Courtesy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... for ductile irons with any possible matrix constituents. While this procedure uses the magnetic disc approach, PSA-backed products can also be used. Colloidal silica ( Ref 1 , 2 ) can produce small etch spots on pearlite patches in ductile cast irons, so it is best to use alumina slurries if the matrix...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0009222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in either condition, the best grinding techniques may not prevent cracks. It is best to apply the cure before grinding. The “tightness of grinding cracks” often makes them impossible to see, but magnetic-particle testing or cold etching will detect them readily. If a cracked tool goes into service...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
...–2.85 … … 0.35–0.70 … 0.20–0.35 … bal Note: Copper plus additions, 99.5% min Recommended etching reagents for beryllium-copper alloys Table 2 Recommended etching reagents for beryllium-copper alloys Etchant Composition (a) Comments 1. Ammonium persulfate hydroxide 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Gaseous Sample Introduction Solid Sample Introduction Quadrupole Mass Analyzer Dynamic Reaction Cell, or Collision Cell, Mass Analyzer Time-of-Flight Mass Analyzer Triple-Quadrupole Mass Analyzer High-Resolution Magnetic Sector Mass Analyzer An ion detector is a structure or device...