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macrostructure

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article focuses on the intermediate length scales, where transport phenomena govern the spatial and temporal evolution of a structure. It presents the cellular automaton (CA) and phase field (PF) methods that represent the state of the art for modeling macrostructure and...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005208
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article describes the roll forming of components of nickel, titanium, and aluminum alloys. The metallurgical characteristics of the roll formed components, such as macrostructures, microstructures, tensile strength, and stress rupture performance, are discussed. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... light illumination to reveal various important macrostructural features (on the order of 1 mm to 1 m, or 0.04 in. to 3 ft), such as the ones shown in Fig. 2 and listed here: Flow lines in wrought products Solidification structures in cast products Weld characteristics, including depth of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... alloys, grain size can be revealed adequately in the as-polished condition using polarized light. There are aspects of structure, termed macrostructure, which can be observed with the unaided eye. Macrostructural examination is often a prelude to microstructural examination but also includes...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... specific alloy. The fine features of the fracture surface will typically be totally obliterated from oxidation, and the texture will correspond to the macrostructure of the alloy. Creep voids and cracks will develop at the cell boundaries, and the fracture surface can often exhibit a dendritic appearance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006284
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
....). In this range, the grain size actually decreases as the strain increases; on the scale shown, the effect is slight, which emphasizes just how large the abnormal grains are. Fig. 12 Macrostructure of pure aluminum sheet showing the grain size after reduction in thickness for the amounts shown...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005425
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... macrostructure evolution during solidification and evaporation during vapor processing were developed for a number of alloy systems. For the most part, these phenomenological models were applicable only to the range of process parameters for which measurements had been made and hence were essentially methods of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... summarized and its availability is indicated as either “production” or “laboratory.” Dispersion alloy coatings combine the finite microstructure of a dispersed particle into a macrostructure. These coatings can be categorized as composites containing lubricant particles or those containing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... many metal and alloy properties. Mechanical properties (e.g., strength, toughness, ductility) are influenced much more than physical properties (many are insensitive to microstructure). The structure of metals and alloys can be viewed at a wide range of levels: macrostructure, microstructure, and...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... macroscopic scale method is shown in Fig. 1 . It contains several grains or phases that are not resolved on the macroscopic scale. The cellular automaton (CA) method was first developed to model the macrostructure in casting by resolving each individual grain. The grains are defined by envelopes, drawn...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., frequency analysis was used to study the sandwich-like layered structure of similar inertia welds. The ultrasonic technique proved to accurately predict the characteristic thickness of the interface layer, a principal macrostructure parameter closely related to bond quality. No frequency analysis study was...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... min by immersion. If thick layer of disturbed metal is to be removed, solution can be heated to boiling. Rinse in running water, rinse in alcohol, and dry. Developing macrostructure of welds and laminations in lead products. 1 part distilled water 8 Solution A: 10% aqueous solution of ammonium...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... carbide and phosphide distribution Nital 5 or 10% nitric acid, 95 or 90% ethanol Dip etch for up to 3 min Used to reveal macrostructure in white irons 4% picral 4% picral acid, 96% ethanol Dip etch for up to 3 min Used to reveal macrostructure in white irons (a) Dissolve cupric chloride...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003971
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... morphologies. Fig. 4 Graded microstructure obtained in a 75 mm (3 in.) diam Ti-6Al-4V bar via localized induction heating. (a) Macrostructure. (b) Microstructure in core. (c) Microstructure in surface layer. Source: Ref 15 More detailed information on the TMP of nickel-base and titanium alloys...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... conditioning before hot working is not necessary. Another special feature of the ESR process, as in VAR, is the directional solidification of the ingot from bottom to top. The macrostructure is marked by an extraordinarily high density and homogeneity as well as by the absence of segregations and shrinkage...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005202
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... macrostructure. Use a short arc gap to minimize crown formation and to maximize arc stability. Use a homogeneous electrode substantially free of cavities and cracks. Use a proper melting power supply. Under ideal conditions, the arc is distributed uniformly across the surface of the molten pool...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... that relate several levels of structure, including atomic, electronic, grain boundary, microstructure, and macrostructure ( Fig. 1 ). The interactions of these structural levels result in materials that have properties suitable for specific applications. The successful development of these materials...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... soundness and the homogeneity of the final product. Still another factor is ingot size. Normally, ingots are 650 to 900 mm (26 to 36 in.) in diameter and weigh 3600 to 6800 kg (8000 to 15,000 lb). Larger ingots are economically advantageous to use and are important in obtaining refined macrostructures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005940
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... structure visible at the cross section was found ( Ref 25 ), as shown in Fig. 21 . The rectangular structure is related to the element distribution measured by electron probe x-ray microanalysis (EPMA). The metallographic macrostructure illustrates an inhomogeneous element distribution due to macro- and...