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macrostructural examination

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article presents examples of the visual fracture examination that illustrate the procedure as it applies to failure analysis and quality determination. It describes the techniques and procedures for the visual and light microscopic examination of fracture surfaces with...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... provides information on how to reveal the various constituents using proven metallographic procedures for both macrostructural and microstructural examination. Emphasis is placed on the specimen preparation procedures such as sectioning, mounting, grinding, and polishing. The article illustrates the use of...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... specimen preparation Optical metallography, one of three general categories of metallography, entails examination of materials using visible light to provide a magnified image of the micro- and macrostructure. In scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the second category, the surface of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... article discusses nondestructive evaluation of welds by encompassing techniques that are used to characterize the locations and structure of internal and surface defects, including radiography, ultrasonic testing, and liquid penetrant inspection. It reviews the macrostructural characterization of a...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... macrostructure and microstructure of spall cavities are described, along with some aspects of the numerous specifications for striking/struck tools. The article also describes the availability of spall-resistant metals and the safety aspects of striking/struck tools in railway applications. fractography...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article focuses on the intermediate length scales, where transport phenomena govern the spatial and temporal evolution of a structure. It presents the cellular automaton (CA) and phase field (PF) methods that represent the state of the art for modeling macrostructure and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... VT25 titanium alloy disk. (a) Macrostructure of the longitudinal section. (b) Microstructures at the mid-plane of the longitudinal section. The radial direction is horizontal in the figures The microstructures of the hub, web, and rim of the disk shown in Fig. 11 were examined both at the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract This article is a comprehensive collection of tables listing: dangerous reactions of chemicals and designations of etchants; chemical-polishing solutions for irons and steels and nonferrous materials; attack-polishing solutions, macrostructure etchants for iron and steel; and major...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001038
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... macrostructure, along with their subsequent effects on fatigue life, have been studied extensively to aid in the appropriate selection of steel to meet specific end-use requirements. The metallurgical variables having the most pronounced effects on the fatigue behavior of carbon and low-alloy steels are strength...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...; therefore, in many cases high domain wall mobility is beneficial. Hard magnetic materials, on the other hand, benefit from immobility of domain walls. Although macrostructural examination is common for only a few of these materials, microstructural examination is used for most, with major emphasis on...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...) Values not given as ranges are maximum. The remainder is magnesium and normal impurities. (b) Minimum. Source: Ref 8 , 9 Due to the refined grain size and spheroidal structure of semisolid products, macrostructural examination alone can offer insight into the structure of some components...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... list the etchants for macroscopic examination and microscopic examination of nonferrous metals and special-purpose alloys. etching grinding macroscopic examination metallographic techniques microscopic examination mounting nonferrous metals polishing sectioning special-purpose alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract This article explains how to prepare precious metal test samples for metallographic examination. It discusses cutting, mounting, grinding, polishing, and etching and addresses some of the challenges of working with small, relatively soft specimens. It includes dozens of example...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract This article describes metallographic preparation and examination techniques for stainless steels and maraging steels. It presents a series of micrographs demonstrating microstructural features of these alloys. Procedures used to prepare stainless steels for macroscopic and microscopic...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... alloys, grain size can be revealed adequately in the as-polished condition using polarized light. There are aspects of structure, termed macrostructure, which can be observed with the unaided eye. Macrostructural examination is often a prelude to microstructural examination but also includes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... arc welded metals, organizing them according to the sectioning method by which they are observed. It describes the relationship between weld bead morphology and sectioning direction and its effect on measurement error. The article examines micrographs from stainless steel, aluminum, and titanium alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., tin, zinc, and zirconium. alloying elements color etching macroetching macrostructural examination magnesium magnesium alloys magnesium specimens metallography microstructure specimen preparation FIVE BASIC MAGNESIUM ALLOY SYSTEMS are currently in commercial production, and these...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...: Ref 1 , 2 Fig. 1 The principal alloying elements of aluminum alloys. Source: Ref 2 Examination of macrostructure is done at low magnification of approximately 10× or less. Macroscopic examination is usually a preliminary procedure prior to microstructural examination. In...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... temporary container for immersion of the sample in the etch solution. Microetching is accomplished by using either swabbing or immersion. Table 2 shows the typical etchants used for macrostructural and microstructural examination of prepared samples. Table 2 Selected etchants for macroscopic and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... ultramicrostructure. Macrostructure can be seen with the human eye and using stereo-zoom microscopes, generally up to a maximum of 20 to 100× magnification. Light microscopes usually cover the range from 50 to 1000×, but can reach 1500× with the use of oil-immersion lenses. Above 1000×, structure is examined using...