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macrostructural examination

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... carbon and low-alloy steels, including ferrite, pearlite, and cementite. The article provides information on how to reveal the various constituents using proven metallographic procedures for both macrostructural and microstructural examination. Emphasis is placed on the specimen preparation procedures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... , p 32 23. Rohatgi P. , Low Cost, Flyash Containing Aluminum-Matrix Composites , J. Met. , Nov 1994 , p 55 Semisolid Processes Compositions of Common Alloys Produced Using Semisolid Metalworking Macrostructural Examination Specimen Preparation, Bulk Extraction...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... magnifications of approximately 50× or higher; macroscopy (macrostructural examination), 50 × or lower. Optical microscopy and, occasionally, SEM are used to characterize structure by revealing grain boundaries, phase boundaries, inclusion distribution, and evidence of mechanical deformation. Scanning...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... Typical sections used in the metallographic examination of welded joints Weld Macrostructure Weld Microstructure Composition of a Weld Mechanical Testing In this section, two weld will be analyzed to serve as examples of techniques discussed thus far in this article. The first...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Chemical-Mechanical (“Attack”) Polishing Automatic Polishing Etching Anodization Heat Tinting Macrostructural Examination Microstructural Examination Microstructural Considerations Identification of Metallurgical Attributes in Reactive Metals Metallography used for Failure...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Electrolytic Etching Etching for Macrostructure Etching for Microstructure There are aspects of structure, termed macrostructure, which can be observed with the unaided eye. Macrostructural examination is often a prelude to microstructural examination but also includes routine quality tests...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in the as-polished condition using polarized light. There are aspects of structure, termed macrostructure, which can be observed with the unaided eye. Macrostructural examination is often a prelude to microstructural examination but also includes routine quality tests for material acceptance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003720
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...: Ref 9 Fig. 9 Sketch of grains in a typical cast ingot Fig. 10 Macrostructure of as-cast aluminum ingot. Transverse section shows outer chill zone and columnar grains that have grown perpendicularly to the mold faces. Etched using Tucker's reagent. 1.5×. Source: Ref 8 Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003725
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... liquid. Source: Ref 6 Fig. 10 The as-cast microstructure of HK-40 (J94214) steel. 250×. Source: Ref 7 Fig. 2 Austenite grains (transformed to pearlite) outlined by ferrite network in the as-cast structure. 40×. Source: Ref 2 Fig. 3 Macrostructure of UNS G10170 steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... disk. Data from longitudinal (L) and transverse (T) samples are shown Fig. 20 The room temperature tensile properties of roll formed nickel alloy 718 Fig. 11 Roll formed VT25 titanium alloy disk. (a) Macrostructure of the longitudinal section. (b) Microstructures at the mid-plane...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of the reagents for macroexaminations Alloy Reagent Effect of etching Ref Pure Al 3M 5M (higher HNO 3 concentration can improve the contrast) Macrostructure Ref 7 , 8 , 9 6M 9M 10M, 12M Superficial defects Macrostructure Commercial-purity Al 1M, 5M, 10M Macrostructure Ref 7 , 9...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... occur in arc welded metals, organizing them according to the sectioning method by which they are observed. It describes the relationship between weld bead morphology and sectioning direction and its effect on measurement error. The article examines micrographs from stainless steel, aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003721
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... structure and substructure, are discussed. The article also describes the major types of multiphase structures and macrostructure of metals and alloys. References References 1. Mehl R.F. , A Brief History of the Science of Metals , American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... SC1 SC or LPDC 1.7Nd, 1RE, 0.5Zr, 0.5Zn AMC & CSIRO ( Ref 23 , 24 ) HPDC, high-pressure die casting; SC, sand casting; LPDC, low-pressure die casting (permanent mold casting). Source: Ref 11 Selected etchants for microscopic examination of magnesium alloys Table 7 Selected...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... 304 stainless steel plate. Source: Ref 5 – 7 Macroscopic examination of a component surface is also essential in evaluating the condition of a material or the cause of failure. This may include: Characterization of the macrostructural features of a fracture surface to identify...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006316
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
...Abstract Abstract Thin-wall gray cast iron (TWGCI) can be seen as a potential material for the preparation of lightweight castings in automotive engineering applications. This article discusses the most important challenges for TWGCI: cooling rate, solidification, macrostructure, microstructure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... 5. Rivera G. , Calvillo P.R. , Boeri R. , Houbaert Y. , and Sikora J. , Examination of the Solidification Macrostructure of Spheroidal and Flake Graphite Cast Irons Using DAAS and ESBD , Mater. Charact. , Vol 59 , 2008 , p 1342 – 1348 10.1016/j.matchar.2007.11.009...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Macrostructural examination, either by cold etching (more common) or hot etching, is very useful for detecting gross problems. Prior-austenite grain size is frequently evaluated by the Shepherd fracture grain size technique, a simple but accurate approach. X-ray diffraction can be used to determine the amount...
Book Chapter

By Samuel M. Purdy
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003750
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Macrostructure at a triple point of a stainless steel slab, transverse section. Electrolytic etch. Courtesy of J. Kelly, Steltech Ltd. Fig. 1 Center segregation in an alloy steel billet (a) Graded C-1 in the graded series ( Ref 4 ). 0.625×. (b) Graded C-5 in the graded series ( Ref 4 ). 0.5×. Both...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... Vander Voort G.F. , Metallography: Principles and Practice , McGraw-Hill , 1984 ; reprinted by ASM International, 1999 6. “Standard Practice for Preparing Sulfur Prints for Macrostructural Examination,” E 1180, Annual Book of ASTM Standards , Vol 01.03 , ASTM , 2003 , p 787 – 789...