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macroscopic examination

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article focuses on the visual or macroscopic examination of damaged materials and interpretation of damage and fracture features. Analytical tools available for evaluations of corrosion and wear damage features include energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... typical types of damage experienced for metallic components. This article discusses the processes involved in visual or macroscopic examination of damaged material; the interpretation of fracture features, corrosion, and wear damage features; and the analysis of base material composition. It covers the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... macroscopic examination of defects, which occur in semisolid metalworking with illustrations. It discusses the macroscopic examination of gating systems and semisolid feedstocks. The article also provides information on feedstock microstructures, direct semisolid metalworking component microstructures, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... illustrations. The article also describes microscopic and macroscopic features of the different fracture mechanisms with illustrations with emphasis on visual and light microscopy examination. The types of fractures considered include ductile fractures, tensile-test fractures, brittle fractures, fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... information on specific ions and substances, service environments, and preservice environments responsible for SCC. It details the analysis of SCC failures, which include on-site examination, sampling, observation of fracture surface characteristics, macroscopic examination, microscopic examination, chemical...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... list the etchants for macroscopic examination and microscopic examination of nonferrous metals and special-purpose alloys. etching grinding macroscopic examination metallographic techniques microscopic examination mounting nonferrous metals polishing sectioning special-purpose alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... coatings. Determine mechanical properties and compare with specifications or standards. Perform macroscopic examination to evaluate homogeneity, integrity, and quality. Perform metallographic examination to evaluate microstructural features. Determine the deformation direction of wrought products...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... prominent fracture features utilizing macroscopic and microscopic photography. The failure analysis process requires careful visual examination and the recording of features observed at each step of the investigation. The appearance of a fractured component specimen may change by cleaning the specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract This article describes metallographic preparation and examination techniques for stainless steels and maraging steels. It presents a series of micrographs demonstrating microstructural features of these alloys. Procedures used to prepare stainless steels for macroscopic and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract The presence of macroscopic residual stresses in heat treatable aluminum alloys can give rise to machining distortion, dimensional instability, and increased susceptibility to in-service fatigue and stress-corrosion cracking. This article details the residual-stress magnitudes and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003720
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... over light macroscopy, when very rough surfaces are being examined on a macroscopic level. For additional information on the comparative capabilities of light and electron microscopy, see the article “Light and Electron Microscopy” in this Volume. Table 1 Depth of field of typical light...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract This article describes testing and characterization methods of ceramics for chemical analysis, phase analysis, microstructural analysis, macroscopic property characterization, strength and proof testing, thermophysical property testing, and nondestructive evaluation techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... solidification microstructure of cast iron. Analytical as well as numerical models describing solidification phenomena at both macroscopic and microscopic scales are presented. The article introduces macroscopic transport equations and presents analytical microscopic models for solidification. These models...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article describes various evaluation techniques of fractography such as visual inspection, macroscopic and microscopic examinations that are used to resolve different aspects of failure. It gives a brief description and pictorial representation of various defects leading to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... general preparation of metallographic specimens and the methods of macroscopic and microscopic examination. Usually, gray-scale (black-and-white) metallography is sufficient for microstructural analysis of cast irons. The article discusses the use of color metallography of gray irons and ductile irons. It...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... composites fatigue fatigue fracture fractography macroscopic examination microscopic examination polymers FATIGUE failure of engineering components and structures results from progressive fracture caused by cyclic or fluctuating loads. The magnitude of each individual load event is too small to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... lightning strikes lightning damage macroscopic examination microstructural assessment microstructure polymer composites AS GREATER PORTIONS of new commercial airplane designs are constructed of polymer composites, it has become increasingly important to design these structures to mitigate the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... the cause of cracking or crack growth. This article discusses the macroscopic and microscopic basis of understanding and modeling fracture resistance of metals. It describes the four major types of failure modes in engineering alloys, namely, dimpled rupture, ductile striation formation, cleavage or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... describe both the macroscopic and microscopic aspects of a process. References 1. Pearson C.E. and Parkins R.N. , The Extrusion of Metals , 2nd ed. , Chapman and Hall , 1960 2. Kaufman A.R. , Klein J.L. , Lowenstein P. , and Sawyer H.P. , Zirconium...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005208
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... macroscopic casting size and from nanoseconds for interface attachment kinetics to hours for casting solidification. The article describes how to determine which phenomena are most important at the particular length and time scale for the problem. It concludes with several examples of the application of...