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macroscopic aspects

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005168
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the numerical simulation of the forming of aluminum alloy sheet metals. The macroscopic and microscopic aspects of the plastic behavior of aluminum alloys are reviewed. The article presents constitutive equations suitable for the description of aluminum...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract This article describes various evaluation techniques of fractography such as visual inspection, macroscopic and microscopic examinations that are used to resolve different aspects of failure. It gives a brief description and pictorial representation of various defects leading...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003742
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...Abstract Abstract Microstructure and crystallographic texture are the key material features used in the continuous endeavor to relate the processing of a metal with its final properties. This article emphasizes several aspects of deformation microstructures, namely, microstructural evolution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... and process variables for which sound extrusions can be obtained. The article concludes with a discussion on the state-of-the-art of coextrusion that assists in developing process models, which accurately describe both the macroscopic and microscopic aspects of a process. billet configurations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... segregation during injection is larger than in macroscopic MIM due to high aspect ratios comparable to the ratio of flow path to runner width. Binder Degradation High aspect ratios expose the material to high shear forces, which can lead to decomposition and mechanical degradation of the organic binder...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005424
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... aspects of a process that are strongly influenced by anisotropy, the properties inherited from the crystal structure must appear explicitly in the model formulation. Such aspects include the evolving state of the material during processing as well as its condition subsequent to processing. Constitutive...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... on structural metals are presented subsequently, followed by a brief discussion of fatigue in nonmetals. The article reviews the various macroscopic and microscopic features to characterize the history and growth rate of fatigue in metals. It concludes with a description of fatigue of polymers and composites...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... aspect of good failure analysis. Examination of a fatigue fracture usually begins with unaided visual observation, often followed by viewing with a hand lens or optical stereomicroscope. Macroscopic examination of fracture surfaces can be performed on-site (when the broken part is accessible...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... improvements. These in turn influence the choice and improvements necessary in the finishing methods. Productivity Although this article has discussed technology drivers that relate to technical aspects of finishing methods, it is obvious that the results must be achieved at lower cost, to compete...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... simulations have evolved to be quite sophisticated and computationally efficient. In contrast, computational tools in the simulation of metallurgical and materials processes (on micro-, meso-, and macroscopic scales) have lagged behind developments in other engineering disciplines. The behavior...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005208
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... up to macroscopic casting size and from nanoseconds for interface attachment kinetics to hours for casting solidification. The article describes how to determine which phenomena are most important at the particular length and time scale for the problem. It concludes with several examples...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... the macroscopic examination of defects, which occur in semisolid metalworking with illustrations. It discusses the macroscopic examination of gating systems and semisolid feedstocks. The article also provides information on feedstock microstructures, direct semisolid metalworking component microstructures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005421
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... fraction of hard orientations, f h , increases in the shaded region from 0.4 to 0.8 in the direction shown. Source: Ref 42 <italic>Multiaxial Stress States</italic> The principal aspects of the micromechanical analysis of cavity growth under a macroscopic multiaxial stress state also comprise...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... these aspects, also including the end of solidification at the thermocouple position, were captured with good accuracy by the employed solidification model. Fig. 9 Flowchart for calculating microstructure evolution and latent heat released in macroscopic-microscopic modeling of casting solidification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... parameters on the structural components in the system, consist of three important aspects: contact parameters, friction parameters, and wear parameters. These three aspects embody the complex mechanisms and relationships between the constituents of a tribosystem. The article concludes with information...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... the coupling of the CA to macroscopic calculation of heat, flow, and mass transfers in castings and applications to realistic casting conditions. microstructure solidification cellular automaton methods macrostructure grain structure castings heat transfers flow transfers mass transfers...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...Abstract Abstract Modeling of structure formation in casting of alloys involves several length scales, ranging from the atomic level to macroscopic scale. Intermediate length scales are used to define the microstructure of the growing phases and the grain structure. This article discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002418
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... interface friction nominally brittle materials notch sensitivity strengthening tensile strength toughening toughness models IN MATERIALS that do not develop macroscopic inelastic strain prior to failure, stress concentrations arise at strain intensification sites. The design procedure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to 11.2 × 10 −6 cm/cycle. Source: Ref 32 Fig. 54 High-cycle fatigue in D6AC steel at Δ K &gt; 60 M P a m (54.6 ksi in .). (a) Macroscopic view of rapid fatigue growth under plane-stress conditions. (b) High-quality transmission electron microscopy replica showing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... is then prepared metallographically, and the prepared section is characterized using macroscopic examination. Macroscopic examination generally does not require the extreme surface smoothness needed for microscopic examinations. Such surface preparation techniques as etching are frequently prolonged...