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macroscopic analysis

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract This article describes testing and characterization methods of ceramics for chemical analysis, phase analysis, microstructural analysis, macroscopic property characterization, strength and proof testing, thermophysical property testing, and nondestructive evaluation techniques...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... fracture of metals, including laps, seams, cold shuts, cracks, inclusions, porosity, fatigue, and stress corrosion cracking. failure analysis fractography macroscopic examination microscopic examination stress corrosion cracking surface defects visual examination EXAMINATION of a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article presents examples of the visual fracture examination that illustrate the procedure as it applies to failure analysis and quality determination. It describes the techniques and procedures for the visual and light microscopic examination of fracture surfaces with...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Analysis of the failure of a metal structure or part usually requires identification of the type of failure. Failure can occur by one or more of several mechanisms, including surface damage (such as corrosion or wear), elastic or plastic distortion, and fracture. This leads to a wide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... deformation energy methods drawing finite-element analysis lower-bound analysis macroscopic process metal flow microscopic process upper-bound analysis METALLIC COMPONENTS consisting of two or more metals are often required by industry for reasons of economy or because the composites can achieve...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005208
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... macroscopic casting size and from nanoseconds for interface attachment kinetics to hours for casting solidification. The article describes how to determine which phenomena are most important at the particular length and time scale for the problem. It concludes with several examples of the application of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract The presence of macroscopic residual stresses in heat treatable aluminum alloys can give rise to machining distortion, dimensional instability, and increased susceptibility to in-service fatigue and stress-corrosion cracking. This article details the residual-stress magnitudes and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Microstructural analysis is the combined characterization of the morphology, elemental composition, and crystallography of microstructural features through the use of a microscope. This article reviews three types of the most commonly used electron microscopies in metallurgical studies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... macroscopically and are particularly insidious, where a device can be functioning normally one moment and broken the next. It has been said that fatigue crack initiation and growth contributes to 80% of all engineering failures ( Ref 8 ). Nowhere does this observation apply more than in the failure analysis of...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article reviews the failure analysis process with specific reference to the considerations that should be addressed when a casting has failed. It describes the failure analysis methodology for three failed cast components: an aluminum bracket, a bronze suction roll, and a steel...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract The primary goal of failure analysis is to prevent the recurrence of product failures. This article discusses the sequence of activities in failure analysis and offers insight on how to gather background information, examine and assess damage, and identify the cause of the problem. It...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003058
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Failure analysis is a process of acquiring specified information regarding the appropriateness of the design of a part, the competence with which the various steps of its manufacture have been performed, any abuse suffered by it in packing and transportation, or the severity of service...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Thermal analysis provides a powerful tool for researchers and engineers in determining both unknown and reproducible behavioral properties of polymer molecules. This article covers the thermal analysis and thermal properties of engineering plastics with respect to chemical composition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... analysis. The NDE includes visual and/or microscopic examination. Visual examination allows for examination of macroscopic features, including telltale signs such as discoloration and deformation, and to obtain dimensional measurements. Microscopic examination may be necessary to examine certain features...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... microstructural analysis of metals, such as scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and transmission electron microscopy, are then reviewed. The article contains tables listing analytical methods used for characterization of metals and alloys and surface analysis techniques. It ends by...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article discusses physical analysis, including slab method and upper-bound method and slip-line field analysis, for calculating stress states in plastic deformation processes. It presents various validation standards and models for evaluating the criterion of fracture for use in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... article discusses the common testing techniques and process variables for workability prediction. It illustrates the simple and most widely used fracture criterion proposed by Cockcroft and Latham and provides a workability analysis using the fracture limit line. The article describes various workability...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Optical testing of plastics includes characterization of materials and analysis of optical components. This article focuses on procedures for testing various characteristics of optical components, including transmission and haze, yellowness, refractive index, birefringence, as well as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... industrial metallurgical, process development, and failure analysis investigations undertaken at Lambda Research. X-ray diffraction residual-stress techniques stress measurement plane-stress elastic model Residual stresses generally are caused by nonuniform thermal and/or...