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macrographic examination

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... perpendicularly to the mold faces. Etched using Tucker's reagent. 1.5× The etched structure was examined using a low-power microscope. The structural elements visible in this macrograph are grains. The small grains near the bottom of the ingot appear relatively equiaxed. This region of small equiaxed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Sectioning and Specimen Extraction” in this Volume provides insight into the specimen selection method as well as processing advice. Both macrographic and micrographic examination are of use in these applications. Electrolyte polishing of coppers and copper alloys alleviates many of the difficulties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
..., to identify and interpret fracture morphologies by visual examination, light microscopy, or electron microscopy (particularly SEM), and to elucidate the benefits of fractography in determining the relationship of the mode of fracture to the microstructure, evaluating the responses of materials to mechanical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of these causes. Investigation of Failures The investigation of a failure can provide valuable information that can be used for design improvement, material selection, and other factors related to the efficient operation of lifting equipment. Much information can be obtained by visual examination. Close...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... at room temperature. (a) Partially broken specimen. Etched with mixed acids. (b) SEM view of fracture. (c) Cross section of fracture. Etched with acetic glyceregia Fig. 94 Cracked 25Cr-12Ni cast stainless quenching fixture. (a) Macrograph of part of the fixture. (b) Microstructure showing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... forming and spinning of aluminum alloys Alloy Maximum reduction, % 2014 70 2024 70 3000 75 5086 60 6061 75 7075 75 Source: Ref 16 , 17 Fig. 5 Macrograph of the longitudinal section of a 2195 Al-Li cylinder that was produced by roll forming over a mandrel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...× Fig. 16 Microstructure of lower bainite as seen in the transmission electron microscope. Note the carbides at a discrete angular orientation within the ferrite laths. Thin foil. Original magnification 8000× Fig. 17 Microstructure of lower bainite as seen in a carbon replica examined...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... occur in arc welded metals, organizing them according to the sectioning method by which they are observed. It describes the relationship between weld bead morphology and sectioning direction and its effect on measurement error. The article examines micrographs from stainless steel, aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003720
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... Both approximately 0.5×. Source: Ref 8 Fig. 2 Macrograph of the Elbogen iron meteorite prepared in 1808 by Widmanstätten and Schreibers using heavy etching in nitric acid. After rinsing in water and drying, printer's ink was rolled on the etched surface, and the sample was pressed onto...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... etched longitudinal centerline section from the commutator side of axle 2028. Examination of the microstructure along the surface of the axle from the fracture face outward reveals extensive penetration of the bearing elements. Macrographs of two of the microsamples are shown in Fig. 8 , which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... Typical sections used in the metallographic examination of welded joints Weld Macrostructure Weld Microstructure Composition of a Weld Mechanical Testing In this section, two weld will be analyzed to serve as examples of techniques discussed thus far in this article. The first...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... micrograph of surface of an unbroken spring, showing area around a tool mark, 300× Fig. 16 Carbon steel counterbalance spring that failed during fatigue testing. (a) Macrograph showing fracture locations (arrows). 1 3 ×. (b) Fracture surface showing dark band (arrow) that nucleated...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to use the scanning electron microscope is that the fracture surfaces are often too corroded to permit examination. Figure 12 shows a macrograph of one side of the fracture at region 3. It shows the fracture edge and the outside pipe surface (cracked surface). It should be noted that the section...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...) light micrograph of U-6.0Nb showing cellular decomposition of the thermoelastic martensite nucleating at inclusions and along prior γ grain boundaries. Electropolished with 5% H 3 PO 4 , electroetched using procedure 2 in Table 5 . 250× Courtesy of A. Kelly Fig. 13 Macrograph of cross section...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... The general structure of a failure analysis investigation is discussed in the Section “Practice of Failure Analysis” in this Volume. The main purpose of this section is to discuss characteristics indicative of SCC that can be revealed during the examination and testing phase of a failure analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0009211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
.... The microporosity (10 to 50 µm at less than 1 vol%) was reported and attributed to gas entrapment ( Ref 8 ), as was the alpha-prime phase due to rapid cooling. Macrographic images of additive-manufactured Ti-6Al-4V are presented in Fig. 5 . Figures 5(a) and (b) are materials produced by Pennsylvania State...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... in the test specimen Fig. 4 Internal deformation in compression testing. (a) Macrograph of the internal deformation in a compression-test specimen with high-contact surface friction. Source: Ref 5 . (b) Schematic representation of the internal deformation into three zones. I, nearly undeformed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Abstract Abstract Metallographic examination is one of the most important procedures used by metallurgists in failure analysis. Typically, the light microscope (LM) is used to assess the nature of the material microstructure and its influence on the failure mechanism. Microstructural...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... information on specific ions and substances, service environments, and preservice environments responsible for SCC. It details the analysis of SCC failures, which include on-site examination, sampling, observation of fracture surface characteristics, macroscopic examination, microscopic examination, chemical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... mechanisms that can result in a fatigue damage mode must be examined. Examples include corrosion fatigue, thermomechanical fatigue, vibrationally induced fatigue, creep-fatigue interaction, and fatigue induced only by mechanical cyclic stresses. Determination of damage mechanisms starts by characterizing...