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macroetching

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Book Chapter

By Samuel M. Purdy
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003750
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... (conc.), 3 parts HCl (conc.); make dilute solutions by mixing acids in water Room temperature Until desired degree of etching is achieved Aqua regia, an extremely powerful etchant, gives off noxious fumes; must be used in a fume hood Selected macroetchants for copper and copper alloys Table...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Defective surface Folds, soldering, flow marks, stains, sinks Incomplete casting Misruns, short shots Incorrect dimensions or shape Shift, mismatch Inclusions or structural anomalies Slag, dross, oxide skin Source: Ref 47 Macroetchants for magnesium and magnesium alloys Table 6...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003749
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... metal ions Crystal figure etching Discontinuity in etching depending on crystal orientation. Distinctive sectional figures form at polished surface. Closely related to dislocation etching Deep etching Macroetching, especially for steels, to determine the overall character of the material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... value of 185 J. The grain-boundary coverage was estimated for each embrittling constituent by examining 100 mm 2 (0.15 in. 2 ) area at 200× magnification. Fig. 3 Same steel as in Fig. 2 heat treated at 1120 °C (2050 °F), and water quenched. Macroetch of a 25 mm (1 in.) diam core taken...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... grinding. The cracks are emphasized with magnetic particles. Macroetching of the surfaces revealed the classic scorch pattern indicative of abusive grinding. The failure, however, was not due to poor grinding practice, but was caused by failure to temper the dies. The interior hardness was 63 to 64 HRC...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Etching Macroetching of Carbon and Alloy Steels Technique for Low-Carbon Steel Sheet Technique for Coated Steel Sheet Technique for Steel Plate, Tube, and Pipe Examination of Welded Joints Technique for Carbon and Alloy Steels of Medium Carbon Content Technique for Carbon and Alloy...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., to include reagents used in metallographic work for microetching, macroetching, electropolishing, chemical polishing, and similar operations. The formulations of etchants given elsewhere in this Volume are adequate for the majority of applications, but they may occasionally require modification...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... IN THIS SECTION, the term etchant is used in its broadest sense, to include reagents used in metallographic work for microetching, macroetching, electropolishing, chemical polishing, and similar operations. The formulations of etchants given elsewhere in this Volume are adequate for the majority...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... and Tantalum METALLOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES that are special to the preparation of specimens of zinc and zinc alloys are discussed in this section. Sectioning and Mounting Grinding and Polishing Macroetching Microetching The same principles of preparation for macroscopic examination apply...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...) must be added slowly, with constant stirring. (e) Immerse specimen in boiling solution for 10 to 30 min, rinse in hot water, dry in air blast. Macroetching of carbon and alloy steels is an inspection procedure for revealing certain aspects of the quality and structure of a steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... can be observed. Etchants appropriate for the base plate often will be suitable for weld metal of the same composition. Etchants used for several alloy systems are listed in Table 3 . For further information, see Ref 5 . Room-temperature macroetches used for the characterization of welded joints...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... less severe macroetching to reveal the metal structure. Etching of nickel alloys for macroscopic examination is performed by immersing or swabbing the ground specimen for 5 to 20 s in an etchant composed of equal parts (by volume) of concentrated nitric acid (HNO 3 ) and glacial acetic acid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... in the literature, but these are not recommend because of safety considerations. (c) Caution: Hydrofluoric acid solutions cause severe burns if allowed to contact skin. Macroetching procedures for uranium and uranium alloys Table 2 Macroetching procedures for uranium and uranium alloys Procedure...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... for microscopic examination are extracted from larger masses by sawing, shearing, filing, hollow boring, or abrasive-wheel cutting. Table 7 gives compositions of the etchants most often used for macroetching and microetching of lead and lead alloy specimens. Etching procedures and specific...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... on longitudinal planes of high-speed steels revealed by macroetching discs of varying diameter with 10% nital. (a) M2 tool steel. (b) T1 tool steel. Both ∼1× Fig. 3 AISI M2 round bars. Carbide segregation at the center of round bars of different diameters. (a) 27 mm (1 1 16 in.) diam. (b) 67...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Adler  Macroetchant  Microetchant 25 mL distilled water 50 mL hydrochloric acid (32%) 15 g iron (III) chloride 3 g ammonium tetrachlorocuprate (II) Hazardous High-alloy, corrosion-resistant steels Cobalt and nickel alloys Aluminum hydroxide/hydrogen peroxide 1 vol ammonium hydroxide 2 vol...
Book Chapter

By R.J. Glodowski
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... Welding Quality Special Surface Decarburization Limits Heat-Treating Requirements Hardenability Requirements Austenitic Grain Size Determination Nonmetallic-Inclusion Testing Magnetic-Particle Inspection Macroetch Testing Cleaning and Coating Heat Treatment Carbon Steel...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... The conversion practice must impart sufficient homogenization or healing to produce a product with sound center conditions. Ingot pipe, unhealed center conditions, or voids are melt-related discontinuities, but their occurrence in forgings is often a function of reduction ratio. Macroetching and ultrasonic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003737
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., hexagonal close-packed; bct, body-centered tetragonal. (b) 1 nm = 10Å Macroetchants for wrought heat-resistant alloys Table 4 Macroetchants for wrought heat-resistant alloys Composition (a) Comments 1. 1 part 30% H 2 O 2 , 2 parts HCl, 2 or 3 parts H 2 O Recommended for nickel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... and macroetch by polish attack 9. Saturated (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 8 (ammonium persulfate) Copper and copper alloys Use after the acetic acid listed above; increases contrast of brass 10. 40 mL HNO 3 , 20 mL acetic acid, 40 mL H 2 O Copper and copper alloys Macroetch 90-10, 70-30, and leaded brass...