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macroetching

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... IN THIS SECTION, the term etchant is used in its broadest sense, to include reagents used in metallographic work for microetching, macroetching, electropolishing, chemical polishing, and similar operations. The formulations of etchants given elsewhere in this Volume are adequate for the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... for 10 to 20 s in solution at room temperature, rinse in hot water and dry. (d) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) must be added slowly, with constant stirring. (e) Immerse specimen in boiling solution for 10 to 30 min, rinse in hot water, dry in air blast. Macroetching of carbon and alloy...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... for microscopic examination are extracted from larger masses by sawing, shearing, filing, hollow boring, or abrasive-wheel cutting. Table 7 gives compositions of the etchants most often used for macroetching and microetching of lead and lead alloy specimens. Etching procedures and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Metal flow in forging. Effect of extent and direction of metal flow during forging on ductility. (a) Longitudinal and transverse ductility in flat-forged bars. (b) Axial and radial ductility in upset-forged bars Macroetching permits direct observation of grain direction and contour and also...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Sketch of ingot structures showing chill zone, columnar zone, and equiaxed zone. Source: Ref 4 Fig. 12 Constitutional supercooling in alloy solidification. Source: Ref 5 The structures in continuous casting are identical to those in ingot casting, as shown in the macroetched cross...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005202
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... patterns can be identified in a macroetched transverse section as light-etching rings. They usually represent a negative crystal segregation. Tree ring patterns seem to have little effect on material properties. Freckles and white spots have a much greater effect on material properties as compared to tree...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... at the bottom in Fig. 839 . Fatigue beach marks are faintly visible at right on the fracture surface of the lower blade. The region between the parallel black lines on each blade was examined by electron microscopy. 6× Fig. 841 A macroetched view of a cracked turbine-rotor blade near the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000605
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... attack. 0.8× Figure 154 shows a macroetched section of the fractured shaft in Fig. 152 . Fig. 155 is a view at 90° to that in Fig. 154 and shows the shaft surface, containing diagonal cracks ( Fig. 154 shows depths of these cracks). Note in Fig. 155 that the seawater produced not only...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... requirements and applications. They may have requirements for surface quality, amount of discard, macroetch tests, mechanical properties, or chemical uniformity as indicated in product specifications: Axle shaft quality Shell steel quality A Shell steel quality C Rifle barrel quality Spark...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...). Mechanical cleaning methods usually use an abrasive medium containing either aluminum oxide or silicon carbide grit. Care must be taken to avoid embedding abrasive grit into the weldment surface. Sometimes wire brushing with an austenitic stainless steel brush and/or local macroetching with a Schantz etch...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... alloy constituents of high vapor pressure migrate, only to be incorporated into the microstructure during primary mill fabrication. Stringers normally occur in the top portions of ingots and can be detected by macroetching or anodized blue etching. Material containing stringers usually must undergo...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... test bar 10. Fig. 19 (a) Diagram of fuselage bulkhead crown fitting showing directions of principal stress, locations of test coupons, and macroetch sections. (b) Forging procedure for obtaining desirable circumferential and radial grain flow Ideal grain flow for this arrangement consists...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... particular directions corresponding to the directions of metal flow during deformation processing. If fibering is present, flow lines will often be visible on a macroetched section. Fibering often is associated with anisotropic mechanical properties. Figure 19 shows fibering in an Fe-2.5Si flat-rolled...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003980
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... preventing the formation of a concentric forging. In instances where longer upsetting appears to be successful, it may have caused an unacceptable grain flow that would be detrimental in the finished product. In case of doubt, questionable grain flow should be examined using macroetch methods. In...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... in Fig. 16 compare oblique and vertical lighting for revealing the structure of a weld; Fig. 17 shows a photograph of a properly illuminated weld. Fig. 16 Effect of oblique and vertical lighting on structures revealed in a macroetched section through a multiple-pass weld in 1008 steel strip...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... or cyclic loading, and macroetching to ascertain gross soundness and structural uniformity. Many other confirming-type destructive tests exist for special problems. When examination and testing are completed, the pieces should fall in place like a jigsaw puzzle. Carefully examine all of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005940
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... were shape rolled to round bars on a so-called H-V stand ( Fig. 22c ), before they were further hot rolled on three-roll reducing blocks with inductive temperature control to bars with a diameter down to 25 mm (1 in.). The Baumann etching and macroetchings at different stages of the hot rolling process...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Preparation of Metallographic Specimens ASTM E 340 Standard Practice for Macroetching Metals and Alloys ASTM E 399 Standard Test Method for Linear-Elastic Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness K Ic of Metallic Materials ASTM E 407 Standard Practice for Microetching Metals and Alloys ASTM E 466...