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lustrous carbon defects

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Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...Abstract Abstract The Replicast process is developed to overcome the formation of lustrous carbon defects and carbon pickup observed in conventional evaporative pattern casting processes. This article provides a discussion on the pattern production, process capabilities, advantages...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
..., the lustrous carbon can become entrapped in the cast metal, creating a defect. Regrettably, instead of correcting the filling system, it is common for the carbonaceous additions to the sand to be reduced.) In addition, when coal is heated by molten iron, it undergoes coking at approximately 1093 °C (2000 °F...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003997
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... overall cost. The most forgeable copper alloy, forging brass (UNS C37700), can be forged into a given shape with substantially less force than that required to forge the same shape from low-carbon steel. A less forgeable copper alloy, such as an aluminum bronze, can be forged with approximately the same...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
..., if entrained by turbulence, the consequences will probably be serious. Nodular iron requires the best filling system possible. Foundries should also be aware of the problem of lustrous carbon generation with some binder systems, including some green sand systems and some phenolic urethanes. This is once...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., parting lines, tool marks, stretcher strains, and surface defects that adversely affect the appearance or function of a part. Polishing is performed with either a wheel or belt to which an abrasive is bonded. The process causes some plastic working of the surface as metal is removed. The resulting...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... sand systems operate with no carbons and without expansion defects. These organic components of the system sand are normally measured by the percent combustible (loss on ignition) test, which indicates the total amount of carbons. This test is often supplemented with the volatiles test, since...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006340
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... experience with the element(s) in question. Carbon is one of the most important elements to control in DI. Inaccurate estimation of carbon levels can lead to shrinkage defects and carbon flotation, two types of defects that are prevalent in heavy-section DI castings. Carbon, as well as sulfur, nitrogen...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005354
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... to problems with sand properties and may cause gas defects in castings. CO<sub>2</sub>-Cured Sodium Silicate The sodium silicate, carbon dioxide process is the oldest of the gas-cured no-bake systems. Sodium silicate (water glass) is a viscous liquid that can be distributed uniformly over sand grains...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... of mold blacking or dressing, generally very close to the casting surface Blacking or refractory coating inclusions G 143 (a) Folded films of graphitic luster in the wall of the casting Lustrous carbon films, or kish tracks G 144 Hard inclusions in permanent molded and die cast aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.9781627081702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... conditions for copper-base metals Table 2 Scale dip and bright dip conditions for copper-base metals These solutions remove scale that is not removed by sulfuric or hydrochloric acid solutions; lower concentrations of nitric acid and higher concentrations of sulfuric acid produce a bright lustrous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... appearance is maintained in service because chromium can resist tarnish, chemicals, scratches, and wear. If the deposit is defect-free, then a level of corrosion resistance also is provided, because the deposit acts as a physical barrier to the environment. Decorative chromium is applied over undercoatings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001232
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... and provides lubrication. Mineral oil or mineral seal oil are conventional fluids that meet these requirements and still have low enough odor and high enough flash point to be feasible and safe. Water-based coolants have specific applications, and some workpieces composed of carbon and other ceramics are often...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., the carbon contents rise from negligible values at the surface to high levels at the center of objects, in association with microstructural features (inclusions, casting defects) that show that the material is in the cast (unworked) condition. Also present in some of these materials are spheroidal nodules...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... and the plated surface should be defect-free, the lustrous, mirror-like deposits described in previous sections are not usually required. Nickel electroforming is the specialized use of the nickel plating process to produce or reproduce articles by electroplating onto a mandrel that is subsequently separated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... in Table 2 . The MBV process is used on pure aluminum, as well as on aluminum-magnesium, aluminum-manganese, and aluminum-silicon alloys. The coating produced varies from a lustrous light gray to a dark gray-black color. The EW process is used for alloys containing copper. The film produced is usually very...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... that is not removed by sulfuric or hydrochloric acid solutions; lower concentrations of nitric acid and higher concentrations of sulfuric acid produce a bright lustrous finish; these solutions can remove 0.0255 mm (0.001 in.) of metal and should not be used when close dimensional tolerances must be maintained...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of oxide skins, most often causing a localized seam Oxide inclusion or skins, seams G 143 (a) Folded films of graphitic luster in the wall of the casting Lustrous carbon films, or kish tracks G 144 Hard inclusions in permanent molded and die cast aluminum alloys Hard spots...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... causing a localized seam Oxide inclusion or skins, seams G 143 (a) Folded films of graphitic luster in the wall of the casting Lustrous carbon films, or kish tracks G 144 Hard inclusions in permanent molded and die cast aluminum alloys Hard spots (a) Defects that under some...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... porosity near the surface. This through-section gas porosity differs from the defect caused by gas released from the investment during decomposition. Here, gas absorbed into the liquid metal, either from the pregraining or casting process, has evolved during solidification. The solidification process...