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lumped-parameter material flow models

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... Abstract This article focuses on four industrial additive manufacturing approaches that are used to create polymer parts. The first section focuses on material extrusion, providing information on lumped-parameter material flow models and higher-fidelity models developed to estimate temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... fracture strain for various materials and test methods. Under high hydrostatic pressure, even brittle materials such as marble have been made to flow plastically. The fracture model of Lee and Kuhn ( Ref 39 ) can be modified to include hydrostatic pressure and thus determine its effect on the fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... convection model of the heating process should involve the flow details for the gas medium that are affected by the furnace geometry, the arrangement of the work load, the nozzle configurations, and process parameters. However, this is too complex and time-consuming for industrial applications. Instead, the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... heat flow. (c) Liquid cools, causing impending collapse of displaced metal. The keyhole is filled by a lump of cooling material at the end of (c), which returns the keyhole to condition (a) to restart the sequence. A mathematical model that is the basis for understanding this keyhole instability...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001334
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... can be produced by heat flow. (c) Liquid cools, causing impending collapse of displaced metal. The keyhole is filled by a lump of cooling material at the end of (c), which returns the keyhole to condition (a) to restart the sequence. A mathematical model that is the basis for understanding this...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005727
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... considered alone but in conjunction with the TS process, because this also influences the coating quality. Some of the quality-control tests that should be considered are powder manufacture, particle size, powder quality control, material chemistry, Heill flow rate, deposition parameter, safety, porosity of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article focuses on transport phenomena and modeling approaches that are specific to vapor-phase processes (VPP). It discusses the VPP for the synthesis of materials. The article reviews the basic notions of molecular collisions and gas flows, and presents transport equations. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006575
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... plasticity models with isotropic material properties, the J2 yield criteria, and the Prandtl-Reuss flow rule have been extensively validated for AM process simulation ( Ref 56 ). High-temperature material properties are not published for many metal alloys. Properties at very high temperatures are only...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... microstructures, an appropriate evolution equation can be derived from thermodynamic considerations; this is the basis of phase-field models ( Ref 45 ). Alternatively, where an appropriate flow velocity can be constructed, the order parameter can be a distance function that measures the normal distance from a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005168
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... elastic-plastic stress integration finite element methods forming macroscopic aspects microscopic aspects numerical simulation plastic behavior sheet metal forming simulation springback tensile instability WITH ADVANCES in computer hardware and software, it is possible to model material...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... concentrate may be recleaned. Likewise, the tailings from the first separation may be scavenged to avoid discarding valuable minerals. The retreatment, regrinding, and other elaborate steps lead to a complex flow sheet. These flow sheets have been optimized by mathematical modeling, and sensitive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002482
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... people have used lumped-parameter models for various materials processes ( Ref 1 , 2 ). The requirements for particular data and the way in which it is gathered is an important step in the construction of a model. Researchers typically play down this step as an “industrial implementation detail.” This...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... consumption, and an overall improved quality of steel. Precise control of the end point carbon and the temperature eliminates time consuming and expensive reblow or cooling procedures. The static-charge model prescribes the proper combination of the charge materials—hot metal, scrap, fluxes, and oxygen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... engineering tool using discrete element modeling technology for the simulation and analysis of particle handling and manufacturing operations and creates a parameterized model of granular solids systems. Computer-aided design models of real particles can be imported to obtain an accurate representation of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., oxidation scale thickness, etc.), A is a material-specific lumped parameter that incorporates a diffusion coefficient, t is the time of high-temperature exposure, and n is a rate-limiting step-specific exponent. Note that in some alloy systems, notably nickel-base superalloys in which strengthening is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... that more than a century ago, Van Laar ( Ref 3 , 4 ) calculated a large number of prototype binary phase diagrams using the one-parameter regular solution model. Approximately half a century later, Meijering extended these calculations from binaries to ternaries ( Ref 5 , Ref 6 , Ref 7 , Ref 8...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.9781627081948
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005950
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... first review is from the author of this section and it is published in Ref 8 . This chapter probably provides the most detailed review of the theory of material modeling for heat treatment simulation, including numerical recipes to implement heat treatment simulation modules in general-purpose FEA...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005634
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
.... Throughout the welding process, the molten metal remains enclosed by the surrounding solid material supported by the electrode force. Thus, the process poses a heat-transfer-dominated problem that influences and is also affected by the electrical current flow and thermomechanical deformation along the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005592
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... temperatures ( Ref 3 ). Currently, these material properties are available only in specific published cases ( Ref 3) . Parameters describing the arc (such as efficiency and other weighting factors) are also difficult to model accurately, as shown by the wide range of values chosen in studies for apparently...