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lubricated contacts

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... the carbon atoms and reduce the shear strength within the lubricant film. If the temperature is higher than 538 °C (1000 °F), the graphite is oxidized and results in a rapid increase of the friction coefficient. Upsetting under high strains (large contact time) makes graphite lubricants break...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... there is no contact between the surfaces, to boundary lubrication, where there is considerable asperity interaction between the contacting surfaces ( Ref 7 ). In the hydrodynamic regime, friction is due only to viscous dissipation within the lubricant and has little or nothing to do with the nature of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... (hydrodynamic) lubrication ( Fig. 5 a) is the occurrence of a thick film of lubricant between tool and workpiece that completely prevents the metal-to-metal contact. The film between tool and workpiece is thinner, and some metal-to-metal contact takes place ( Fig. 5 b). This regime occurs in bar and wire...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... designed for cold extrusion with high rigidity, accurate alignment, and long working strokes are described. The article details the factors that are critical in cold extrusion: punch design, die design, and tool design. It summarizes the role of lubricants during extrusion of steel, such as soap lubricant...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... properties and specifications of test bar. It discusses the properties of gray iron, such as fatigue limit, pressure tightness, impact resistance, machinability, and dimensional stability, at both room and elevated temperature. Wear behavior of gray iron castings during sliding contact under conditions of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., 0.001% B at 54 to 58 HRC High-carbon steel: 0.80% C, 0.70% Mn, 0.30% Si, 0.20% Cr, 0.15% Mo, 0.002% B at 60 to 64 HRC Use of an effective lubricant can reduce wear in several ways. The lubricant serves to separate the rubbing surfaces, preventing or greatly reducing metal-to-metal contact...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Additives for plastics and elastomers are used to increase the ease of processing and to improve the properties of the final product. Additives improve processing characteristics by increasing lubricity and by stabilizing the polymer. Additives that improve properties include those...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... quickly inserted into the container, along with the appropriate followers or a dummy block. The extrusion cycle is then started. As a lubricant, glass exhibits unique characteristics, such as its ability to soften selectively during contact with the hot billet and, simultaneously, to insulate the hot...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... wear also are different. The fundamental difference between arcing contacts and sliding contacts is that sliding contacts require films on the contact faces to facilitate sliding without seizure or galling; shear must occur within this film with only minor disturbance of both materials. A lubricant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... along z -axis under Hertzian contact Fig. 5 Subsurface stress under rolling contact The life prediction of rolling-element bearings is based on a statistical analysis of bearing tests performed in a controlled environment (e.g., full-film lubrication, dust free). Given that the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003999
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... lubricants used in nickel-base alloys forging. It describes two major forging processing categories for nickel-base alloys: primary working and secondary working categories. Primary working involves the deformation processing and conversion of cast ingot or similar bulk material into a controlled...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003983
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of reduction, feed rate, die taper angle, surface contaminants, lubrication, and material response on swaging operation. The article discusses the applications for which swaging is the best method for producing a given shape, and compares swaging with alternative processes. It concludes with a...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003987
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Coining is a closed-die forging operation in which all surfaces of the workpiece are confined or restrained, resulting in a well-defined imprint of the die on the workpiece. This article focuses on the coining equipment (hammers and presses), lubricants, and general and special die...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., advantages and limitations of cutting and grinding fluids, such as cutting oils, water-miscible fluids, gaseous fluids, pastes, and solid lubricants along with their subtypes. It discusses the factors considered during the selection of cutting fluid, focusing on machinability (or grindability) of the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003178
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... 54 2 1 8 60 2 3 8 … … (a) Radii can be slightly less for a 90° bend, but must be slightly larger for 360°. (b) Ratio of outside diameter to wall thickness of tubing Table 1 Typical lubricants for bending various metals Work metal Lubricant Low...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... considerations include the usage of furnaces and launder system, scrap return, inclusions in zinc alloys, fluxing of zinc alloys, and galvanizing fluxes. The article discusses the materials and lubricant selection, casting and die temperature control, and trimming process used in hot chamber die casting for zinc...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... best finish on any given workpiece is usually where direct contact has been made with the tools, such as on the top of a bolt head or on an extruded shank portion where cold working is severe. The lubricant is likely to have a greater effect on the appearance of a headed surface than on surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... austenitic stainless steels, martensitic stainless steels, precipitation-hardening stainless steels, and ferritic stainless steels. It concludes with a discussion on the heating and lubrication of dies. austenitic stainless steel cleaning dies ferritic stainless steel forgeability forging forging...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... possible to their final shape. The article also provides useful information on drying methods, shrinkage, and defects as well as the removal of organic processing aids such as dispersants, binders, plasticizers, and lubricants. ceramic forming process drying green machining organics removal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... and sintered PM parts: density variations, compaction and ejection cracks, microlaminations, poor degree of sintering, and voids from prior lubricant agglomerates. It describes the various methods applicable to green compacts: direct-current resistivity testing, radiographic techniques, computed...