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lubricant additives

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... polar additives in these slushing oils displaces the water diluent of the temper-mill lubricants. Prelubes, or mill-applied lubricants, have more than dual functions. They function in tandem to other operations, offering corrosion protection, water-displacing properties that aid in removing water from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... spray resulting from hydrogen that forms when acid attacks steel Lower acid consumption Minimize the risk of hydrogen embrittlement When used at appropriate concentrations, inhibitors should not appreciably affect the rate of scale or rust removal. A number of additives have been used in...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Additives for plastics and elastomers are used to increase the ease of processing and to improve the properties of the final product. Additives improve processing characteristics by increasing lubricity and by stabilizing the polymer. Additives that improve properties include those...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... conversion coating and without coating ( Ref 2 ). A large variety of lubricants may be applied for cold forging of unalloyed aluminum and the easily formable alloys, which include zinc stearate, mineral oil+graphite, mineral oil+EP additives, grease, and lanoline. Cold forging processes with heavier...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... high pressures and low speeds involved, lubrication is of the boundary type. The three principle fluids (water, oil, and synthetic fluid) that comprise the primary ingredients of sheet metal forming lubricants are combined with additives to achieve the desired operating characteristics. Table 4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... tools at the high pressures and temperatures developed during extrusion. Other soap lubricants, with or without filler additives, can be used effectively for the mild extrusion of steel. This type of lubricant does not react with the phosphate coating, but is absorbed by it. Although the lubricant...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...) Viscosity (200 to 1000 SUS) is influenced by base oil or wax, degree of chlorination, and additions of mineral oil. (k) Solid lubricant applied from dispersions in oil, solvent or water. (l) For hot forming applications only Stainless steels are press formed with the same kind of equipment as...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... these polymers (polytetrafluoroethylene, or PTFE, polyamides, and polyethylene) are self-lubricating; that is, they form transfer films that reduce friction ( Ref 7 ). Other plastics are formulated with lubricating additives such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ), graphite, or PTFE. Table 1...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... wear, lubrication and lubricated wear, and selection of steels for wear resistance. The article discusses the effect of alloying elements, composition, and mechanical properties of carbon and low-alloy steels at elevated temperatures. It talks about the fatigue resistance characteristics of steels, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... vapor formation in addition to the lubrication effect. At temperatures above 1000 °C (1830 °F), the thermal insulation of the tooling from overheating is of equal importance to the lubricating effect, particularly with difficult-to-extrude alloys. The lubrication film can also impede oxidation...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... basic types of cutting fluids are as follows: Cutting oils: straight and compounded mineral oil (plus additives) Water-miscible (water-soluble) fluids: emulsifiable oils (soluble oils), chemical (synthetic) fluids, and semichemical (semisynthetic) fluids Gases Paste and solid lubricants...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... of a solid, dry film lubricant as part of the fastener production process was considered. Figure 6 shows average torque-tension curves generated from testing replicate 1 2 -20-UNC, grade 5 fasteners plated with cadmium, zinc-nickel, and zinc-nickel with additional lubricious topcoats (i.e...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003996
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... lubricants that significantly reduce emissions, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Additionally, powder die lubricants based on graphite and other additives are also available, which not only eliminate VOC emissions but also have less impact on die temperature than water-based lubricants are known...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... normal lubrication is also discussed. The article reviews the use of alloys and heat treatment to modify as-cast properties. It concludes with information on physical properties of gray iron castings. gray iron castings castability dimensional stability fatigue limit fluidity gray iron heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... and energy requirements. In addition to lubrication effects, the effects of die chilling or heat transfer from the hot material to colder dies must be considered. For example, for a given lubricant, friction data obtained from hydraulic press forging cannot be used for mechanical press or hammer...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... possible to their final shape. The article also provides useful information on drying methods, shrinkage, and defects as well as the removal of organic processing aids such as dispersants, binders, plasticizers, and lubricants. ceramic forming process drying green machining organics removal...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... those operations. Heavy-duty lubricants are required in most cold forming of nickel-base alloys. Although sulfur- and chlorine-containing additives can improve lubricants, they can also have harmful effects if not completely removed after forming. Sulfur will embrittle nickel-base alloys at...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... affecting forgeability. It describes the forging techniques, equipment, and common processing elements associated with titanium alloy forging. The processing elements include the preparation of forging stock, preheating of the stock, die heating, lubrication, forging process, trimming and repair, cleaning...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... an appropriate central lubricating system built into the die and coupled to an external lubricator. Die cooling should be accurately calculated and achieved by internal water channels. In marginal cases, additional cooling can be accomplished by the die spray. In such cases, the dilution is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... size, machining, descaling, cutting to length, and lubricating. It lists the advantages of the cold heading over machining. Materials selection criteria for dies and punches in cold heading are also described. The article provides examples that demonstrate tolerance capabilities and show dimensional...