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low-temperature creep

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By Sammy Tin
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... materials using expressions known as constitutive equations that relate the dependence of stress, temperature, and microstructure on deformation. The article reviews the characteristics of creep deformation and mechanisms of creep, such as power-law creep, low temperature creep, power-law breakdown...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract The principal types of elevated-temperature mechanical failure are creep and stress rupture, stress relaxation, low- and high-cycle fatigue, thermal fatigue, tension overload, and combinations of these, as modified by environment. This article briefly reviews the applied aspects of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., thermomechanical fatigue; NDE, nondestructive evaluation; LCF, low-cycle fatigue; HCF, high-cycle fatigue. Source: Ref 2 In the past, some limited elevated-temperature hold-time studies have been performed in vacuum to investigate the relative contribution of the environment and creep deformation to the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., characterizing constant-rate testing at low and intermediate temperatures and also creep, are relevant even under the conditions of hot deformation. Mecking and Lücke ( Ref 22 , 23 ) introduced a formal description hardening and softening during plastic flow, where it is assumed that the individual...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... valves and turbochargers. Table 1 presents the characteristics of titanium aluminides alongside those of other aluminides; the creep behavior of titanium aluminides is compared with that of conventional titanium alloys in Fig. 17 . Despite a lack of fracture resistance (low ductility, fracture...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... expansion, specific heat, and the determination of glass transition temperatures. It concludes with a discussion of the thermal and related properties of nine thermostat resin systems divided into three groups by low, medium, and high service temperature capabilities. differential scanning calorimetry...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... corrosion resistance relative to carbon steels and most low-alloy steels. Components fabricated from Cr-Mo steels serve in the petroleum, petrochemical, fossil power, and pulp and paper industries. The steels are most often used at temperatures of 316 °C (600 °F) and higher, when creep effects...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...) developed for lamp filaments. They were initially designed to satisfy lighting industry requirements for creep-resistant molybdenum parts. Doped alloys such as MH and KW (see Table 1 ) do not have particularly high strength at low temperatures, but these materials are extremely resistant to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... of 1 μm thickness. The activation energy at zero stress, Q 0 , for steady-state creep in unannealed, vapor-deposited copper films is about 1.3 eV. In sputtered 1 μm thick aluminum and aluminum-1% silicon-alloy films, Q 0 is 0.56 and 1.10 eV, respectively ( Ref 2 ). The low activation-energy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...) of an AISI type 316 pipe. The pipe served as a vent for the preheater-reactor slurry transfer line in a coal-liquefaction pilot plant. Although no material flowed through the vent line—a “dead leg”—the service temperature was low enough to permit formation of an aqueous condensate on its inside...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... stainless steel. Marble’s etch Creep is caused by a combination of stress and temperature that exceeds the long-term strength limits of the material. The most severe form of creep is identified by voids forming at the grain boundaries. These voids appear in a zigzag pattern at an advanced stage. In...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006261
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... adverse conditions such as corrosive environments. The alloys are also used at both low and high temperatures, in applications where expansion must be controlled, and for their magnetic properties. The composition has been developed and continues to be refined to meet the challenges of the operating...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005329
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... is a low-carbon martensitic alloy that may contain minor amounts of retained austenite or ferrite. The copper precipitates in the martensite when the alloy is heat treated to the hardened (aged) condition. Cast heat-resistant steels are alloyed to prevent creep or other failure due to elevated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...) Intergranular creep fracture resulting from grain-boundary cavitation in PE-16. Source: Ref 59 At high temperatures and low strain rates, grain-boundary sliding favors cavity formation ( Fig. 34b ). The grain-boundary cavities resulting from creep should not be confused with microvoids formed in dimple...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... drop off markedly with temperature. Figures 1 and 2 compare tensile strengths and 150 h creep strengths of a few titanium alloys. The fatigue strength of titanium alloys is of interest because it does not show a marked drop with temperature until temperatures in excess of 315 to 425 °C (600 to 800...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003086
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... at room temperature and below. Table 1 lists C p values for various metallic elements. Thermal conduction is the phenomenon by which heat is transported/transferred from high- to low-temperature regions of a substance. The property that characterizes the ability of a material to transfer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... substantial deformation when revealed through metallographic investigation. cold working composition crystal structure deformation deformation mode deformation rate deformation temperature diffusion creep grain rotation grain-boundary sliding microstructure plastic deformation twinning...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... creep rupture, fracture, or breakage. The generalized uniaxial tensile creep behavior of plastics under constant load, isothermal temperature, and a given environment can be illustrated as ductile creep behavior ( Fig. 16 ) or as brittle creep behavior ( Fig. 17 ). At very low stress levels, both...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... heat input of 0.83 kJ/mm (21.2 kJ/in.). Weldment toughness was measured at room temperature on a subsized 13-mm (0.5-in.) thick dynamic tear (DT) specimen notched in the weld. Solidification cracking of the hard and brittle fusion zone (untempered martensite) resulted in low toughness values typically...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... reasons for brittle behavior of ductile materials include loading conditions and the internal state of stress created by the part geometry and the geometry of any imperfections in conjunction with the operating environment (chemically reactive and/or high or low temperature). The inherent ductile behavior...