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low-pressure carburizing

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract Low-pressure carburizing (LPC) is one of the most popular case-hardening processes and is applied to increase the fatigue limit of dynamically loaded components. It takes place in a pressure range between 5 and 15 mbar (4 and 11 torr) and at temperature range between 870 and 1050 deg C...
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of the low-pressure carburizing and high-pressure gas quenching process More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 7 Vacuum systems for the low-pressure carburizing process. (a) Treatment chamber as part of a multichamber system. (b) View into a single-chamber furnace More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 8 Multichamber system for low-pressure carburizing process in mass production. ModulTherm (ALD Vacuum Technologies) with ten treatment chambers More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 14 Load configuration for low-pressure carburizing of sun gears. 20MnCr5HH gear wheel; 576 parts per batch; cycle time, 215 min; carburizing temperature, 945 °C (1735 °F); nitrogen, 8 bar (6000 torr); case-hardening depth, 0.65–0.75 mm (0.026–0.030 in.); core hardness, 35–38 HRC More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 15 Load configuration for low-pressure carburizing of ring gears. 16MnCr5 gear wheel; 44 parts per batch; cycle time, 450 min; carburizing temperature, 930 °C (1705 °F); helium, 18 bar (13,500 torr); case-hardening depth, 0.85–0.95 mm (0.034–0.037 in.); core hardness, 27–30 HRC More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 18 Load configuration for low-pressure carburizing of transmission gears used in landing box. SAE 9310; 12 parts per batch; carburizing temperature, 960 °C (1760 °F); nitrogen, 6 bar (4500 torr); case-hardening depth, 1.4–1.65 mm (0.055–0.065 in.). Source: Ref 14 More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 19 Load configuration for low-pressure carburizing of ball screws. SAE 8620; carburizing temperature, 960 °C (1760 °F); nitrogen, 20 bar (15,000 torr); case-hardening depth, 1.4–1.65 mm (0.055–0.065 in.). Source: Ref 14 More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 24 Runout of pinions; comparison between low-pressure carburizing and high-pressure gas quench and gas carburizing and oil quench More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract The plasma carburizing process is basically a low-pressure carburizing process making use of a high-voltage electrical field applied between the load to be treated and the furnace wall producing activated and ionized gas species responsible for carbon transfer to the workpieces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005987
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... Abstract This article provides an overview of steel gear heat treating processes and brings out the nuances of the various important heat treating considerations for steel gear applications. The heat treatment processes covered are annealing, carburizing, hardening, low-pressure carburizing...
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 9 Schematic of change of surface carbon content during low-pressure carburizing defined by alternating carburizing pulses and diffusion steps More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 6 Distribution of alloying elements close to the surface after (a) low-pressure carburizing and (b) atmospheric gas carburizing. Material is SAE 5115. More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 21 Component manufacturing with central hardening shop and with one-piece flow (integrated manufacturing lines applying high-temperature low-pressure carburizing, or LPC). Source: Ref 21 More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 13 Heat treating cycles 1, 2, and 3 applied in the carburized (low-pressure vacuum gas carburizing) gear load. HPGQ, high-pressure gas quenching. Adapted from Ref 19 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005956
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
..., acetylene, and methane, which are addressed during low-pressure carburization with or without plasma assistance. For all carbon donators, the carbon transfer from the atmosphere into the surface of the samples leads to continuous enrichment of the surface with carbon. The carbon uptake of the surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005951
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... at temperature, carburizing AISI 8620 at 1010 °C (1850 °F) produces much heavier cases than carburizing at lower temperatures. (b) Parts carburized at 1010 °C (1850 °F) develop plateaus of carbon contents in cases, adding to the effective case depth. Source: Ref 9 More recently, vacuum (or low-pressure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... the atmosphere, carburizing in an oxygen-free environment at very low pressure (vacuum carburizing) has been explored and developed into a viable and important alternative. Although the furnace enclosure in some respects becomes more complex, the atmosphere is greatly simplified. A single-component atmosphere...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... the steel. This article introduces the fundamentals, types, advantages and limitations, and the complications of various forms of carburizing, namely, pack carburizing, liquid carburizing or salt bath carburizing, gas carburizing, and low-pressure (vacuum) carburizing. The related process of carbonitriding...
Book Chapter

By Volker Heuer
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... and 20 bar with gas velocities between 0.5 and 20 m/s. When using a nozzle field, velocities can be much higher, up to 80 to 160 m/s. In a few cases, up to 25 bar pressure is applied. The HPGQ process is combined in most cases with a vacuum heat treatment, such as low-pressure carburizing (LPC...