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low-melting-temperature solders

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... are commercially available with liquidus temperatures that are as low as 11 °C (51 °F), for the ternary Ga-In-Sn alloy, to as high as 425 °C (795 °F), for the germanium-aluminum solder. Metal alloys with melting temperatures that exceed 450 °C (840 °F) are categorized as brazing filler metals...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., tin, cadmium, and indium. The term fusible alloy refers to any of the more than 100 white-metal alloys that melt at relatively low temperatures, that is, below the melting point of tin-lead eutectic solder (183 °C, or 360 °F). The melting points of these alloys range as low as 47 °C (116 °F). Fusible...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.9781627081733
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003205
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... include: The joint forms itself by the nature of the flow, wetting, and subsequent crystallization process, even when the heat and the braze or solder are not directed precisely to the places to be joined. The process temperature is relatively low, so there is no need for the heat to be applied...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... test TIN, a soft, brilliant white, low-melting metal, is widely known and characterized in the form of coating for steel, that is, tinplate, and as a component of solder. In the molten state, it reacts with and readily wets most of the common metals and their alloys. Because of its low strength...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... be considered in conjunction with the various base materials commonly brazed with it. For specific applications, surveillance testing in actual or simulated systems should be performed in order to model actual service conditions. Soldering is a widely used low-temperature joining technique applied...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of tin solders tin chemicals tin-base alloys tinplate TIN is a soft, brilliant white, low-melting metal that is most widely known and characterized in the form of coating for steel, that is, tinplate. In the molten state, it reacts with and readily wets most of the common metals and their...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003156
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... The primary requirements for resistance alloys are uniform resistivity, stable resistance (no time-dependent aging effects), reproducible temperature coefficient of resistance, and low thermoelectric potential versus copper. Properties of secondary importance are coefficient of expansion, mechanical...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... weakness. Finishing temperatures are closely restricted only for types 405, 430, and 442. These alloys require special consideration because of grain-boundary weakness due to development of a small amount of austenite. The other ferritic types are commonly finished at temperatures as low as 700 °C (1300 °F...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... joining materials. The low melting range of tin-lead solders makes them ideal for joining most metals by convenient heating methods with little or no damage to heat-sensitive parts. Tin-lead solder alloys can be obtained with melting temperatures as low as 182 °C (360 °F) and as high as 315 °C (600 °F...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... “cry” when bent. It wets glass and finds application in low-melting alloys and solders. It is used in making alkaline batteries, automotive trim, bearing alloys, electronic assemblies, germanium transistors, photoconductors, rectifiers, thermistors, vacuum seals, and group III-V compound semiconductors...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... nature of the furnace charge may range from prealloyed ingot of high quality to charges made up exclusively from low-grade scrap. However, even under optimum melting pouring conditions, molten aluminum is susceptible to three types of degradation: With time at temperature, adsorption of hydrogen...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... relatively low temperatures and include zinc alloys with casting temperatures between 400 and 450 °C (750 and 840 °F). Also, lead and tin alloys, together with other systems having casting temperatures below 250 °C (480 °F), are routinely hot chamber die cast. The injection end of a hot chamber die casting...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... alloying elements. The low-melting eutectic composition is normally the last portion of the metal to freeze, normally along the grain boundaries. On reheating the metal for hot working operations, if the lowest melting eutectic temperature is exceeded, melting can occur along the grain boundaries and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.9781627081740
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003174
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., in many ways, a low-cost, lower melting point steel. Fig. 10 Microstructures of ductile iron. (a) As-cast ferritic. (b) As-cast pearlitic, hardness 255 HB. (c) Ferritic, annealed 3 h at 700 °C (1290 °F). (d) Pearlitic ductile iron, oil-quenched and tempered to 255 HB. All etched in 2% nital...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... a dialogue early in the product cycle. Die casting machines are classified by the metal-pumping systems as either hot chamber or cold chamber. If the metal being cast melts at a low temperature or does not attack the injection pump material, the pump can be placed directly in the molten metal bath...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005306
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... areas of importance include Pb-60Sn (solders), antimony-lead and calcium-lead (battery grids), and Pb-7Sn (terne plating). The melting and casting of pure lead and foundry alloys pose fewer problems than with other nonferrous systems. The major lead alloys have relatively low melting points (315 to...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... temperature gradients in the melt. The cooling effect of incoming batch and heat losses through the furnace walls add to the gradients. These temperature gradients produce density differences that drive three-dimensional convective flows in the melt ( Fig. 1 ). Maximum velocities are low, typically 1 to 10 m...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... for dental restorations include a low flow temperature, the ability to sufficiently wet the substrate surfaces, adequate corrosion properties, mechanical properties, and color ( Ref 19 , 31 ). It is vital that the melting range of the solder is approximately 100 °C (180 °F) below that of the...