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low-melting-temperature solders

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001092
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... Abstract This article focuses on the use of indium and bismuth in low-melting-temperature solders and fusible alloys. It describes how the two elements typically occur in nature and how they are recovered and processed for commercial use. It also provides information on designations...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., tin, cadmium, and indium. The term fusible alloy refers to any of the more than 100 white-metal alloys that melt at relatively low temperatures, that is, below the melting point of tin-lead eutectic solder (183 °C, or 360 °F). The melting points of these alloys range as low as 47 °C (116 °F). Fusible...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... are commercially available with liquidus temperatures that are as low as 11 °C (51 °F), for the ternary Ga-In-Sn alloy, to as high as 425 °C (795 °F), for the germanium-aluminum solder. Metal alloys with melting temperatures that exceed 450 °C (840 °F) are categorized as brazing filler metals. Specifications...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001399
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... Abstract Hot gas soldering is a process that is commonly used in applications where the workpiece thermal mass is small and the melting temperature of the solder is relatively low. This article describes the characteristics of hot gas heating that are critical to its effectiveness in soldering...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... component with a low material melting point (that is, an electrolytic capacitor), a plastic connector, a switch, a label, or some other heat-sensitive part or material. The lowest common denominator within the assembly will determine the highest temperature to which any part should be exposed. A buffer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001450
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... THE ULTIMATE GOAL of brazing and soldering technologies is to join parts into an assembly through metallurgical bonding ( Ref 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ). This can be achieved by placing a relatively low-melting-temperature alloy, or filler metal, in the clearance, or gap, between the base materials to be joined...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... soldering surface-mounted components to various substrate materials. Because of the precise temperature control that this process offers (by virtue of a fixed boiling point), multilevel soldering is possible using up to three solder compositions with three different melting temperatures. Fluid temperatures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... °F 63Sn-37Pb 183 361 183 361 Eutectic composition; most fluid of the SnPb alloys 40Sn-60Pb 183 361 238 460 Long melting range; good for filling gaps 96.5Sn-3.5Ag 221 430 221 430 Fluid solder; strongest of low-temperature solders 95Sn-5Sb 233 452 240 464 For copper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005856
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
..., gases, or fluids where little mechanical strength is required of the joints, and where in-service operating temperatures are low. Where significant mechanical strength of the joint is needed, and/or operating temperatures are above the melting temperatures of solder filler metals, brazing is used...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of tin solders tin chemicals tin-base alloys tinplate TIN is a soft, brilliant white, low-melting metal that is most widely known and characterized in the form of coating for steel, that is, tinplate. In the molten state, it reacts with and readily wets most of the common metals and their alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001344
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... to produce sound joints. Just as the technique of brazing developed empirically, so did the lower-melting point filler metals. Workers first used lead and tin solders as well as silver and copper-arsenic ores, which were readily available and had low melting points. Later, the alloy brass was developed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... strength (tensile and shear) to resist overload stresses, solders must possess sufficient creep strength under sustained loads. This factor is particularly critical, because typical service environments (including room temperature) are actually high-temperature applications, relative to the low melting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001492
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... is not important for soldering. In steels, hydrogen embrittlement occurs when four conditions are met: favorable microstructure (martensite, bainite, ferrite), hydrogen level, residual stress, and low temperature (<<100 °C, or 212 °F). These four conditions should be kept in mind when choosing a brazing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...-cycling-induced strains in a ceramic ball grid array package. PCB, printed circuit board Due to the relatively low melting temperature of most tin-base solder systems (lower than 550 K, or 530 °F), solder generally operates in a high-homologous-temperature regime (i.e., the temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
.... The tin-lead with silver composition will improve creep-rupture strengths and will slightly reduce reactions when soldering to silver or copper. These solders typically contain 0.25% Sb to prevent the formation of the low-temperature allotrope of tin (“tin pest”) at 13.2 °C (56 °F). Lead-Base Tin-Lead...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001346
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... required solders having the following properties: Compatibility with copper (especially with respect to alloying behavior and melting temperatures) Good electrical conductivity Workability to enable factory workers to rapidly form low-cost, reliable solder joints Engineers now had formal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... and/or dissolution reaction that results in the formation of a soluble compound. Both brazing and soldering share the following advantages: There is minimal disruption of the base materials by operating at relatively low temperatures. Joining of fundamentally different materials (e.g., metals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
.... Aging Effects in Solders Solders are multiphase low-temperature melting materials, where the solubility in each phase decreases with a decrease in temperature. Precipitation of the second phase out of solid solution and phase coarsening occur at room temperature after the solder joint is solidified...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001076
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
..., and bearing repairs. Tin particles can also be used in food can lacquers to decrease the dissolution of iron and any exposed lead-base solder by the food product. Additions of 2% tin powder and 3% copper powder aid the sintering of iron compacts. The tin provides a low-melting-point phase, which in turn...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001397
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
.... Process Applications The RS process can be used in all soldering operations and with all solderable metals. The only limitations are the thickness and the design of the parts to be soldered. Resistance soldering is used to join steels (for example, carbon, low alloy, and stainless) and nonferrous...