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low-frequency vibration method

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... acoustic transducer, radiography, thermography, and low-frequency vibration methods. The article also provides information on NDE methods commonly used for metal-matrix composites. acoustic emission computed tomography digital radiography eddy-current electromagnetic acoustic transducer fiber...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...-ultrasonics, radiography, X-ray computed tomography, thermography, low-frequency vibration methods, acoustic emission, eddy current testing, optical holography, and shearography. The article presents some examples are for fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composites. Many of the techniques have general...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005431
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract Several methods are developed for the numerical solution of partial differential equations, namely, meshed-solution methods such as the finite-element method (FEM), finite-difference method, and boundary-element method; and numerical algorithms consisting of so-called meshed-solution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005619
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... ) concluded that neither diffusion nor recrystallization could be responsible for the joint formation of UW after comparing low-frequency vibration welding with UW of aluminum and examining the copper and soft iron UW. A great degree of plastic deformation and metal flow occur across the interface, and flow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... well understood, most likely due to the relative strain across the crack and delamination, both in opening/closing and shear modes. At equal vibration amplitudes, crack heating is roughly proportional to frequency ( Ref 10 ). More cycles generate proportionally more heat, so even at low frequency (e.g...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... welding welding evaluation methods POLYMERS AND POLYMERIC COMPOSITES are attractive because of their high strength-to-weight ratio, chemical inertness, and ability to be molded into complex shapes at relatively low cost. Polymers can be categorized as thermosets or thermoplastics. In the case of...
Book Chapter

Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002130
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... of techniques to overcome difficulties presented by workpiece configuration. It describes the factors related to accuracy of boring and factors affecting them. The article also presents a discussion on close-tolerance boring and methods of controlling vibration and chatter. It concludes with a...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... circumstances, the environmental and corrosion effects have much greater importance, as can be seen by the extrapolation of the results reported in Ref 24 to lower frequencies ( Fig. 17 ). Fig. 17 Plot of wear versus frequency of fretting vibration The area of low frequency has been investigated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006400
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... varies from one application to another. The visual inspection technique is widely applied to detect cracks, surface defects, corrosion, and leakage by using various types of tools, such as low-power microscopes and stroboscopes. The main advantages of this method are the immediate condition assessment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003586
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... methods, frequency modulation methods, electrochemical noise resistance, potential probe methods, cyclic potentiodynamic polarization methods, potentiostatic and galvanostatic methods, electrochemical noise (EN) methods, scratch-repassivation method, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... welding techniques are described below in terms of the basis of the joining method, the key joining parameters involved in the process operation, and the application areas of each joining method. Frictional heating is important in the ultrasonic, vibration, and spin welding methods. In...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003316
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... Abstract Fretting is a special wear process that occurs at the contact area between two materials under load and subject to slight relative movement by vibration or some other force. During fretting fatigue, cracks can initiate at very low stresses, well below the fatigue limit of nonfretted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002372
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... Table 1 Reduction or elimination of fretting fatigue Principle of abatementor mitigation Practical method Reduction in surface shear forces Reduction in surface normal forces Reduction in coefficient of friction with coating or lubricants Reduction/elimination of stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006486
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... aluminum structural components but are less ductile and have more discontinuities (e.g., cracks, inclusions, pores) than wrought products. An inspection method, inspection frequency, and acceptance criteria are needed to assess these discontinuities to establish material strengths for design. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article describes various methods of electrochemical analysis, namely coulometry, electrogravimetry, voltammetry, electrometric titration, and nanometer electrochemistry. The discussion covers the general uses, sample requirements, application examples, advantages, and limitations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... transducer driven by an electronic oscillator or amplifier. The transducer vibrates at a frequency of 20 kHz. The apparatus must include some method of measuring the displacement amplitude of the transducer as well as a means of maintaining the specified test temperature. Fig. 1 Schematic of a typical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... value at which instability occurs ( Ref 6 ). In such cases, K c will not be equal to the K Ic of the material. At low Δ K values (region I in Fig. 2 ), the crack growth rate decreases rapidly with decreasing Δ K , and ultimately Δ K approaches a threshold value, Δ K th , when the crack...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... the natural frequency (Hz), and f 1 and f 2 are the half- power (3 dB) points. Finally, it must be emphasized that just as there are many possible sources of energy dissipation in structures, most apparatuses for measuring damping need some method of applying the cyclic loads, measuring the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006374
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... Type of NVH Frequency range Brake roughness 5~60 Hz Groan and moan 100~500 Hz Howl 500~1000 Hz Low-frequency squeal 1000~3000 Hz High-frequency squeal 4000~16000 Hz NVH, noise, vibration, and harshness Brake roughness is the vehicle vibration, jerkiness, or pulsation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... (which stands for programmable powder preforming process). This process has the potential for low-cost, high-volume production of optimized-design automotive PMC, due to its highly automated and low-waste method of applying chopped fiber to contoured surfaces. The fiber length and direction can be...