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low-frequency vibration method

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... acoustic transducer, radiography, thermography, and low-frequency vibration methods. The article also provides information on NDE methods commonly used for metal-matrix composites. acoustic emission computed tomography digital radiography eddy-current electromagnetic acoustic transducer fiber...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
..., radiography, X-ray computed tomography, thermography, low-frequency vibration methods, acoustic emission, eddy current testing, optical holography, and shearography. The article presents some examples are for fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composites. Many of the techniques have general applicability to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005431
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract Several methods are developed for the numerical solution of partial differential equations, namely, meshed-solution methods such as the finite-element method (FEM), finite-difference method, and boundary-element method; and numerical algorithms consisting of so-called meshed-solution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005619
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... ) concluded that neither diffusion nor recrystallization could be responsible for the joint formation of UW after comparing low-frequency vibration welding with UW of aluminum and examining the copper and soft iron UW. A great degree of plastic deformation and metal flow occur across the interface, and flow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... cycles generate proportionally more heat, so even at low frequency (e.g., 20 kHz) excitation, higher harmonics and multiples of subharmonics with lower vibration amplitudes can dominate vibrothermographic heating due to their higher frequency. In composite materials, the primary requirement for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... welding welding evaluation methods POLYMERS AND POLYMERIC COMPOSITES are attractive because of their high strength-to-weight ratio, chemical inertness, and ability to be molded into complex shapes at relatively low cost. Polymers can be categorized as thermosets or thermoplastics. In the case of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... circumstances, the environmental and corrosion effects have much greater importance, as can be seen by the extrapolation of the results reported in Ref 24 to lower frequencies ( Fig. 17 ). Fig. 17 Plot of wear versus frequency of fretting vibration The area of low frequency has been investigated...
Book Chapter

Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002130
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... of techniques to overcome difficulties presented by workpiece configuration. It describes the factors related to accuracy of boring and factors affecting them. The article also presents a discussion on close-tolerance boring and methods of controlling vibration and chatter. It concludes with a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006400
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
..., surface defects, corrosion, and leakage by using various types of tools, such as low-power microscopes and stroboscopes. The main advantages of this method are the immediate condition assessment and the low-level inspection skills. However, the problem with this method is that various results may be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003586
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... between | Z (ω)| 1 and | Z (ω)| 2 representing the high- and low-impedance electrodes. Methods have been suggested for sensing the current fluctuations on both electrodes ( Ref 72 ). The reader is referred to these articles for more information. Fig. 6 R sn (ω) versus frequency compared to two...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... is the most widely used polymer joining process. Numerous published papers describe the basic features. In this welding process, a sonotrode delivers low-amplitude (15 to 60 μm), high-frequency sinusoidal vibration in a direction perpendicular to the bond line. Although ultrasonic welding machine...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003316
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... Abstract Fretting is a special wear process that occurs at the contact area between two materials under load and subject to slight relative movement by vibration or some other force. During fretting fatigue, cracks can initiate at very low stresses, well below the fatigue limit of nonfretted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002372
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... oscillatory pivot bearings are often subjected to a low amplitude, but high frequency, dithering motion leading to fretting or false brinelling between the balls and the race. (The difference between false brinelling and fretting is discussed in the article “Fretting Wear” in Volume 18 of the ASM Handbook...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006486
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... attempting to mimic components of other materials. This article discusses design specifications, design requirements and methods, and material properties used in aluminum structural design. These properties include tensile yield strength and tensile ultimate strength, welding, and ductility. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article describes various methods of electrochemical analysis, namely coulometry, electrogravimetry, voltammetry, electrometric titration, and nanometer electrochemistry. The discussion covers the general uses, sample requirements, application examples, advantages, and limitations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... transducer driven by an electronic oscillator or amplifier. The transducer vibrates at a frequency of 20 kHz. The apparatus must include some method of measuring the displacement amplitude of the transducer as well as a means of maintaining the specified test temperature. Fig. 1 Schematic of a typical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
...) to provide a comparison between the two methods. Once a consistency is demonstrated, constant-load amplitude testing in the low crack growth rate regime is not necessary under similar conditions. The two most widely used types of specimens are the middle-crack tension, M(T), and the compact-type...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... the natural frequency (Hz), and f 1 and f 2 are the half- power (3 dB) points. Finally, it must be emphasized that just as there are many possible sources of energy dissipation in structures, most apparatuses for measuring damping need some method of applying the cyclic loads, measuring the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006374
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... roughness 5~60 Hz Groan and moan 100~500 Hz Howl 500~1000 Hz Low-frequency squeal 1000~3000 Hz High-frequency squeal 4000~16000 Hz NVH, noise, vibration, and harshness Brake roughness is the vehicle vibration, jerkiness, or pulsation that is felt by driver and/or passenger during...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... PMC, due to its highly automated and low-waste method of applying chopped fiber to contoured surfaces. The fiber length and direction can be controlled, thus allowing for the design advantages of PMCs to be exploited ( Fig 6 ). The P4 process is an example of how processes must be adapted to...