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low-alloy chromium-vanadium steels

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005954
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... molybdenum steels, low-alloy chromium-molybdenum steels, low-alloy nickel-chromium-molybdenum steels, low-alloy nickel-molybdenum steels, low-alloy chromium steels, low-alloy chromium-vanadium steels, and low-alloy silicon-manganese steels. The article reviews heat treating parameters and processing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... C, VC), vanadium-niobium-alloyed carbide (V, Nb)C), vanadium-niobium-chromium-alloyed carbide (V, Nb, Cr)C), chromium carbides (Cr 7 C 3 , Cr 23 C 6 ) by the high-temperature salt bath process, vanadium carbide by the fluidized-bed process, and chromium nitride (Cr 2 N, CrN) by the low-temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005973
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... steels, along with 4.75% vanadium and 5% chromium. It is deep hardening with a relatively low zing temperature. It is low in distortion, with high resistance to softening at elevated temperatures, and medium resistance to decarburization. Type A6 steel has properties roughly similar to A4 except...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... of chromium Fig. 44 Effect of spheroidization on the rupture strength of carbon-molybdenum steel (0.17C-0.88Mn-0.20Si-0.42Mo). Source: Ref 73 Fig. 45 Temperature-time plot of pearlite decomposition by the competing mechanisms of spheroidization and graphitization in carbon and low-alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004156
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... personnel safety. The majority of construction materials used for furnace walls is carbon steel due primarily to its lower cost. The use of low- and medium-alloy steels, characterized by the addition of a small amount of chromium, molybdenum, and other elements for improved mechanical properties...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003114
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... These alloys contain molybdenum, chromium, vanadium, carbon, and varying amounts of tungsten. They are similar to tungsten hot-work steels, having almost identical characteristics and uses. Although their compositions resemble those of various molybdenum high-speed steels, they have a low carbon content...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005884
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
...) needs to be completed, followed by rapidly cooling below 480 °C (900 °F). Such rapid cooling prevents formation of chromium-rich precipitates that leave grain boundaries denuded in chromium, prone to corrosion attack. In contrast to plain carbon and low-alloy steels, the microstructure of many...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
..., V, Zr Plate, bar, and shapes ≤ 100 mm (4 in.) in thickness Atmospheric-corrosion resistance four times that of carbon steel Structural members in welded, bolted, or riveted constructions A 572 High-strength low-alloy niobium-vanadium steels of structural quality Nb, V, N Plate, bar, shapes...
Book Chapter

By Malcolm Blair
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... Properties Low-Temperature Toughness Machinability Weldability Fracture Toughness Carbon-Manganese Cast Steels Manganese-Molybdenum Cast Steels Manganese-Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum Cast Steels Nickel Cast Steels Nickel-Vanadium and Nickel-Manganese Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... of their ability to machine materials at high cutting speeds. They are complex iron-base alloys of carbon, chromium, vanadium, molybdenum, or tungsten, or combinations thereof, and in some cases substantial amounts of cobalt. The carbon and alloy contents are balanced at levels to give high attainable hardening...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... of transition metals such as chromium, cobalt, and vanadium to improve their physical and mechanical properties, as well as their subsequent alteration in aggressive biological environments, should be addressed. The release of toxic ions in different oxidative states generated by these transition metals through...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004158
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... as possible, without making the coating too brittle. As the protective oxide is removed and reformed, the aluminum and chromium content of the coating is reduced. Eventually, the aluminum and chromium levels are too low to reform this protective oxide layer. At this point, the coating itself is attacked...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
..., and tungsten additions led to the development of modified chromium-molybdenum steels. These steels include the TB9 and TB12 alloys ( Table 4 ) developed in Japan and the vanadium-niobium modified 9Cr-1Mo steel developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, previously covered in Code...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003976
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... comparing specific steels, however, it is instructive to review the compositions and attributes of the various grades. Low-Alloy Tool Steels (6G, 6F, 6H) The principal alloying elements in these steels are nickel, molybdenum, and chromium, with vanadium and silicon in smaller additions. The total...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006128
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... with low molybdenum and vanadium contents, should be kept closer to the lower limit. Other powder metallurgy HATS suppliers specify a certain preheat soaking temperature, often 870 °C (1600 °F), plus the time at austenitizing temperature per millimeter diameter or wall thickness ( Fig. 8 ). High-tungsten...
Book Chapter

By J.Y. Shi
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... supercarburizing if carbon steel without alloying elements is used. However, using steel with carbide-forming elements such as chromium, molybdenum, and vanadium can realize supercarburizing easily. A composition suitable for supercarburized steel is: 0.1∼0.4% C, 0.7∼0.9% Si, 2.7∼3.2% Cr, 1.1∼1.4% Mn, 0.4∼0.6...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
...Abstract Abstract Tool steels are any steel used to make tools for cutting, forming, or shaping manufactured parts. Most tool steels are wrought products alloyed with relatively large amounts of tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium, manganese, and/or chromium. The article describes a wide variety...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
.... The addition of nickel also can improve toughness, as well as provide a solid-solution hardening effect. Vanadium and Niobium Vanadium and niobium are added in small quantities in low-alloy steels to obtain the desired mechanical properties. By forming V(C,N) and Nb(C,N), the vanadium and niobium can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... and nickel-chromium-molybdenum-vanadium alloy steels. Source: Ref 287 Fig. 49 Effect of hydrogen content and cooling rate after hot working on the number of flakes in etch disks of AISI 1080 carbon steel and nickel-molybdenum-vanadium alloy steel. Source: Ref 287 Fig. 56 Relative...
Book Chapter

By Loren Godfrey
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... spring wire (ASTM A 401), oil-tempered spring wire (ASTM A 229), chromium-vanadium spring wire (ASTM A 231), and hard-drawn spring wire (ASTM A 227) at (a) 90 °C (200 °F) and (b) 150 °C (300 °F). Relaxation curves for the low-alloy steel spring wires (ASTM A 231 and A 401) are also plotted at (c) 200 °C...