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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article discusses the types of patterns used for a specific application such as loose patterns, match plate patterns, cope and drag patterns, and special patterns. It describes the principles of the patternmaking techniques used to make expendable molds and for metal casting...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article reviews the pattern materials used in investment casting, which can be loosely grouped into waxes and plastics. The patternmaking process, pattern tooling, and pattern and cluster assembly are described. The article also describes the manufacture of ceramic shell molds...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Abstract X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) techniques are used to characterize samples in the form of loose powders or aggregates of finely divided material that readily diffract x-rays in specified patterns. This article provides an introduction to XRPD, beginning with a review of sensing...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... external ribs are added to the tubular shape ( Fig. 2 ), molding practice remains unchanged. However, when six ribs are added ( Fig. 3 ), either cores or loose pieces must be used to avoid locking the pattern in the mold. This principle is applicable to all shapes, regardless of their complexity. Fig...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... that apply to molding a pattern apply also to molding a sand core. The core must be freed from the core box by moving the box away from the core in a direction generally perpendicular to the face of the core box. Loose pieces that have been placed in the core box to assist in producing the shape of the core...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract The Replicast process is developed to overcome the formation of lustrous carbon defects and carbon pickup observed in conventional evaporative pattern casting processes. This article provides a discussion on the pattern production, process capabilities, advantages, and limitations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0009000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... of the draw bead surfaces after removal of the loose buildup, for example, at 35,000 and ∼49,000 drawings. This change pattern of wear corresponds very well to the change pattern of material transfer and buildup on/in the draw beads discussed previously. Under the conditions in this series of studies...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005254
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... flask. Investment of the pattern is achieved by positioning the pattern system in the flask, which has a 25 to 75 mm (1 to 3 in.) bed of sand in the bottom of the flask. Once the pattern system is properly positioned, loose, unbonded sand is introduced in and around it ( Fig. 1 ). The flask...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... is ready for investment into a one-piece sand flask. Investment of the pattern is achieved by positioning the pattern system in the flask, which has a 25 to 75 mm (1 to 3 in.) bed of sand in the bottom of the flask. Once the pattern system is properly positioned, loose, unbonded sand is introduced...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... The materials and procedures used for making core boxes are essentially the same as those used for making patterns. In general, the principles that apply to molding a pattern apply also to molding a sand core. The core is freed from the core box by moving the box away from the core. Loose pieces that have...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.9781627082075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract Sheet forming failures divert resources from normal business activities and have significant bottom-line impact. This article focuses on the formation, causes, and limitations of four primary categories of sheet forming failures, namely necks, fractures/splits/cracks, wrinkles/loose...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... A specially constructed hollow-wall flask containing a vacuum connection is then placed around the pattern ( Fig. 4 ). The flask is filled with loose sand and vibrated at a low power level ( Fig. 4 ). A two-screen sand (70 and 270 mesh) is recommended for producing high-density molds; however, sand...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... Both expendable and permanent molds must be separable into two or more parts in order to permit withdrawal of either the permanent pattern (from an expendable mold) or the raw casting (in the case of a permanent mold or die). In the case of sand (or other loose granular material) molding, permanent...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... are to be minimized, the assignment of wide tolerances will allow the use of loose (unmounted) wood patterns to fabricate the casting. Green sand floor molding, traditionally the process chosen for the low-volume manufacture of castings, will normally use an unmounted, loose wood pattern with very limited accuracy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... with wire brushes, scrapers, sandpaper, and other tools that do not depend on electric or pneumatic power to operate ( Fig. 21 ). These hand tools are intended only to remove loosely adhering corrosion products, old paint, and flaking mill scale and are not intended to produce an anchor pattern in the steel...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003172
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... that are to be produced from it and the dimensional accuracy tolerances of the casting. For short runs or experimental castings, patterns may be loose pieces shaped in wood, in which case the gating will be cut in the sand by hand using tools designed for the process. In making a mold from a loose-piece pattern...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003694
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., grease, dirt, soil, drawing compounds, and various other contaminants. Does not remove rust or mill scale. No visual standards are available. Hand tool cleaning SSPC-SP2 Used to remove loose rust, mill scale, and any other loose contaminants. Standard does not require the removal of intact rust...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... 1 . The main categories are: Expendable molds with permanent patterns Expendable molds with expendable patterns Metal or permanent mold processes Fig. 1 Chart of shape casting process In the case of an expendable old, made with bonded sand or other loose granular mold...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... and the casting alloy specs determine the ‘shrink factor’ with which the pattern must be designed. Changing the pattern wax will alter the casting's dimensional characteristics. Pattern Materials Pattern materials for investment casting can be loosely grouped into waxes and plastics. Waxes are more...