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longitudinal tension

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
..., and sporting goods. This article describes the damping characteristics of unidirectional composites, when they are subjected to longitudinal shear, longitudinal tension/compression, and transverse tension/compression. It presents equations that govern the overall damping capacity of beams that are cut from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000625
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... illustrate the ductile fracture, interlaminar failure, transgranular cleavage and fracture, tension-overload fracture, longitudinal and transverse cracking, fiber splitting, stress rupture, and low-cycle fatigue of these composites. ductile to brittle transition fractograph metal-matrix composites...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... refer to fiber, matrix, longitudinal, and transverse, respectively. Fig. 10 Damage initiation, propagation, and ultimate failure of biaxially loaded E-glass/epoxy composite tubes. σ 2 t and σ 2 c are axial tension and compression. τ 12 is in-plane shear stress. Fig. 8...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
...-ply generic parent laminate with a 0° ply bonded to each surface on each end but terminating near the center of the specimen. Tension load was applied. The control specimen with the terminating plies cut off straight and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis failed at 77% of the parent allowable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003374
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... of composite properties to fiber-matrix adhesion will be governed by how matrix and fibers are connected and how the applied load is transferred and distributed in composite. For example, in the case of longitudinal tension, the matrix and fibers are connected through fiber-matrix interface in parallel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... instrumentation are usually necessary. In the laminate evaluation longitudinal-tension specimens with and without a thickness discontinuity illustrated in Fig. 2 , the discontinuity is a ply drop-off, but it could have been a center hole or a combination of both. Effects of such discontinuities are covered...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... in appearance to curl, is also a longitudinal curvature along the coil length. Coil set can occur when metal is wound onto a small-inside diameter (ID) arbor with excess tension. The smaller the ID, the thicker the metal, and the softer the temper, the greater is the likelihood of inducing coil set. Because...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... B4.0 for two orientations of fillet welds (transverse to the tension loading and longitudinal to the tension loading) ( Ref 8 , 9 ). The transverse specimen is a double lap specimen with loaded fillet welds, as shown in Fig. 1 . The longitudinal specimen is a combination of two lapped shear plates...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... by Surface Grinding Example 4: Longitudinal Residual Stress Distribution in Welded Railroad Rail Example 5: Determination of the Magnitude and Direction of the Maximum Residual Stress Produced by Machining Macroscopic stresses, or macrostresses, which extend over distances that are large relative...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... = 1.1272 Å Fig. 12 Longitudinal residual-stress distribution with and without correction for removal of the carburized case from a 16 mm (⅝ in.) diameter 1070 steel shaft Fig. 13 Rockwell C scale hardness distribution in an induction-hardened 1070 carbon steel shaft with residual-stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003382
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
.... 7 Structural configurations with high interlaminar stresses. σ z is tensile stress and τ xz is shear stress. Fig. 3 Radiograph of graphite/epoxy laminate using image-enhancing penetrant to reveal transverse and longitudinal cracking and local delaminations Fig. 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005592
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... to be in tension and the base material in compression. Figure 2 illustrates the computed temperatures and corresponding longitudinal stress across a plate before, during, and after welding ( Ref 24 ). Before welding, the plate has zero stress. During welding, the welding region (center of the plate) is under...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... kg (1 lb) to about 225 kg (500 lb). As shown in Table 1 , test plans for mechanical properties include tension, compression, shear, and bearing strength tests; the effect of grain orientation is evaluated by testing specimens representative of the longitudinal, long-transverse, and short...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... usually skewed, with the diaphragms placed perpendicular to the longitudinal girders. Cracking was initially observed at the ends of the transverse connection plate, which was cut short of the tension flange by 25 to 50 mm (1 to 2 in.). Cracking has since developed along the web-flange weld. A more...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005122
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
...Abstract Abstract Stretch forming is the forming of sheet, bars, and rolled or extruded sections over a die or form block of the required shape while the workpiece is held in tension. This article discusses the applicability, advantages, and machines and accessories of stretch forming...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003418
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... of Century Design Fig. 6 Automatic shrink tape wrapping machine. Courtesy of Century Design Fig. 7 Centerless sander. Courtesy of Century Design Fig. 8 Unidirectional tape, longitudinal ply rolling Fig. 9 Unidirectional tape, 0/90° rolling Fig. 12 Tapered...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003330
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
..., ASTM standard under development Excellent but expensive. Ultimate stress and strain levels high for fibers parallel to longitudinal axis of tube. Effects of this and other fiber orientations (hoop and slightly off from hoop) should be compared. 1 Off-axis tension Acceptable only for modulus...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... fracture. Figure 1 shows a steel wire rope that fractured in tension due to overloading. With a fatigue type of failure, the member will usually fail at a load well below its specified load limit; thus, a false sense of security exists when dealing with a member that is fracturing by fatigue. Periodic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003399
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...-fiber is represented by the shaded area. Fig. 5 Typical stress-strain curve for a longitudinally loaded MMC Fig. 6 Schematic of the effective stress-strain response for damaging brittle fibers, based on the statistical model of Ref 16 , 17 Abstract Abstract The goal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003264
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
..., low sulfur level) Longitudinal 58.8 84.0 27.0 70.2 Transverse 59.8 85.2 28.0 69.0 ASTM A 656, Grade 80 ( 3 4 in. thick plate, low sulfur level + controlled rolled) Longitudinal 81.0 102.3 25.8 71.2 Transverse 86.9 107.9 24.5 67.1 ASTM A 5414 ( 3 4...