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longitudinal cracks

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000625
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... the ductile fracture, interlaminar failure, transgranular cleavage and fracture, tension-overload fracture, longitudinal and transverse cracking, fiber splitting, stress rupture, and low-cycle fatigue of these composites. ductile to brittle transition fractograph metal-matrix composites...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006468
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., magnetized bar, circular magnetization, longitudinal magnetization, and effects of flux direction. General applications, advantages, and limitations of the various magnetizing methods used in magnetic-particle inspection are listed in a table. The article discusses the items that must be considered in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006470
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... describes the basic equipment in ultrasonic inspection systems, and lists the advantages and disadvantages of these systems. It discusses the applications of ultrasonic inspection and also the general characteristics of ultrasonic waves in terms of wave propagation, longitudinal waves, transverse waves...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract This article considers the two primary methods used for ultrasonic inspection: pulse-echo and the transmission methods. Pulse-echo inspection can be accomplished with longitudinal, shear, surface (Rayleigh), or Lamb (plate) waves using a diverse range of transducers. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006446
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... longitudinal wave and Rayleigh surface acoustic waves. It concludes with information on the applications of nonlinear ultrasonics. nonlinear ultrasonic nondestructive examination nonlinear ultrasonic materials characterization flaw-detection longitudinal wave Rayleigh surface acoustic waves THE...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... in the cylindrical portion of a 35-mm (1 3 8 -in) diam torsion-bar spring of AISI 50B60 steel heat treated to a hardness of 53 HRC. The fatigue crack originated in a very small (0.38 mm, or 0.015 in. long) facet (labeled “Origin of fatigue”) on a longitudinal shear plane and progressed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) is a form of corrosion and produces wastage in that the stress-corrosion cracks penetrate the cross-sectional thickness of a component over time and deteriorate its mechanical strength. Although there are factors common among the different forms of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...×. Fig. 644 : Intentionally opened microcrack on polished longitudinal section. Note that features on crack face are identical to those on fracture surface facets (see Fig. 642 ), indicating that both facets and microcracks form by the same mechanism. SEM, 2000× (G.R. Caskey, Jr., Atomic Energy Division...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000613
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...-overload fractures, impact fractures, microstructure, quench cracking, brittle-in-service failure, hydrogen embrittlement, stress-corrosion cracking, and grain-boundary cracking of tool steel components. These components include diesel engine injector plungers, rivet-heading tools, circular saw blades, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... 466.1 MPa (67.6 ksi) and 8.0% elongation in the longitudinal direction. See also Fig. 969 . ∼0.1× Fig. 969 View of an area of one fracture surface of the broken hub in Fig. 968 , showing the fatigue-crack origin. Visible are beach marks, which suggest that the origin is at the location...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006472
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) is an ultrasonic technique used to detect diffracted waves from crack tips and to size the cracks from the arrival times of those waves. This article discusses the basic considerations and provides information on probe selection, gain setting, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Fig. 5 Cracking in a truck transmission housing (Example 3). (a) Typical crack at a stiffening rib. (b) An opened crack at a stiffening rib exhibited brittle features. (c) Longitudinal metallographic cross section showing secondary brittle cracking along the graphite flakes. 2% nital etch. Original...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Fatigue failures may occur in components subjected to fluctuating (time-dependent) loading as a result of progressive localized permanent damage described by the stages of crack initiation, cyclic crack propagation, and subsequent final fracture after a given number of load...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000623
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... faintly visible in Fig. 1134 , 1135 , and 1136 . The arrows mark locations of longitudinal secondary cracks in the bore of the hole. 15× Fig. 1138 View of the edge of the bolthole through which passed one of the secondary radial fractures (at left or at bottom) in the compressor disk in Fig...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... three perpendicular directions: L for the longitudinal direction, T for the thickness direction, and W for the width direction. The crack plane is indicated by the direction normal to the crack, and the crack propagation is indicated by one of the directions L, T, or W. Figure 2 demonstrates the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract This article describes concepts and tools that can be used by the failure analyst to understand and address deformation, cracking, or fracture after a stress-related failure has occurred. Issues related to the determination and use of stress are detailed. Stress is defined, and a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... during their lifetime. This article focuses on fractography of fatigue. It provides an abbreviated summary of fatigue processes and mechanisms: fatigue crack initiation, fatigue crack propagation, and final fracture,. Characteristic fatigue fracture features that can be discerned visually or under low...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... may not be readily discernible on the surface of a brittle stress-rupture fracture, due to buildup of surface oxides. If oxide buildup is removed, such cracking usually is visible. Intergranular cracking can readily be seen in a polished longitudinal section and can extend beyond the fracture zone...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... failed Küntscher nails. They were made from 316L, but contained excessive amounts of sulfide inclusions. Pits initiated at these sites, mainly along the exposed longitudinal cross sections of the nail, and cracks proceeded via transgranular SCC. Bandyopadhyay and Brockhurst ( Ref 279 ) investigated two...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005950
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... microstructure, distortion, residual stress, and cracking in gears, shafts, and bearing rings. bearing rings cracking distortion electrical conductivity gears heat treatment heat treatment simulation induction hardening magnetic permeability microstructure phase transformation residual stress...