1-20 of 101 Search Results for

log normal distribution

Follow your search
Access your saved searches in your account

Would you like to receive an alert when new items match your search?
Close Modal
Sort by
Book Chapter

By P.S. Grant
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... process that always produces a wide range of droplet diameters. The article schematically illustrates typical log-normal droplet diameter probability density distribution on a mass or volume basis obtained by gas atomization. It also illustrates the changes in solid fraction during the spray casting...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... 1340 666 1230 9260 743 1370 816 1500 749 1380 713 1315 The relief of residual stresses is a time-temperature related phenomenon ( Fig. 1 ), parametrically correlated by the Larson-Miller equation: Thermal effect = T ( log   t + 20 ) ( 10 − 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... neutron diffraction, powder diffraction, and pair distribution function analysis. The relationship between detector space and reciprocal space are presented. Various factors involved in sample preparation, calibration, and techniques used for analyzing diffraction data are described. The article also...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... reactions, filtration and washing, and powder recovery techniques. It concludes with a discussion on characterization, centering on size distribution analysis, specific surface area, density, porosity chemical composition, phase, and surface composition. ceramic powders ceramic processing additives...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006634
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... dilution can be 1 M, 0.1 M, 0.01 M, 0.001 M, etc. A 10-fold dilution for each step is called a logarithmic dilution or log-dilution, a 3.16-fold (10 0.5 -fold) dilution is called a half-logarithmic dilution or half-log dilution, and a 1.78-fold (10 0.25 -fold) dilution is called a quarter-logarithmic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005968
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... are already available on many furnaces. For example, it may be desirable to measure and log the amount of time required to move a load from the hot zone to the quench operation. This result will vary over time and can warn of serious mechanical problems before they affect the process. Looking at...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... diffusion pump Hot zone control thermocouple signals are generally transmitted to a process temperature controller-programmer, often connected in parallel with temperature recorders, data logging instruments, or computers. The overtemperature thermocouple signal may be tracked accordingly, as a backup...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003088
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... used statistical distributions: normal, log normal, Weibull, and exponential, which are continuous in nature and binomial Poisson and hypergeometric, which are discrete functions. Each of these statistical distributions are briefly described below. References 34 , 35 , and 36 provide a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... This allowed the collection of ET signal magnitudes and corresponding crack sizes (known as “ a -hat,” or â , versus a data). The review of the data collected by these systems showed that the data generally were linear on a log-log scale, with variance normally distributed around the mean...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.9781627081757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... neck. Figure 6 shows that this gives close agreement for steel specimens but not for other metals with widely different necking strains. It has been shown that the Bridgman correction factor, B , can be estimated from ( Ref 3 ): (Eq 10) B = 0.83 − 0.186   log ε ( 0.15 ″ ε...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0005586
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... DIBS dual-ion-beam sputtering DIN Deutsche Industrie-Normen (German Industrial Standards) DLC diamondlike carbon dL / dX loading rate dpa displacements per incident atom DPH diamond pyramid hardness (Vickers hardness) e natural log base, 2.71828; charge of an...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... quantitative fractography is to express the characteristics of the features in the fracture surface in quantitative terms, such as the true area, length, size, spacing, orientation, and location, as well as distributions of these, as required. As will be discussed in this article, the more prominent techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... express the flow curve of many metals in the region of uniform plastic deformation, that is, from yielding up to maximum load: (Eq 17) σ = K ε n where n is the strain-hardening exponent and K is the strength coefficient. A log-log plot of true stress and true strain up to maximum load...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
...) σ = σ o + B ε where log ⁡ σ o = a o + a 1 log ⁡ ε ˙ + a 2 log 2 ⁡ ε ˙ + a 3 log 3 ⁡ ε ˙ + a 4 log 4 ⁡ ε ˙ . The polynomial models developed through linear regression methods tend to provide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... mean grain size (40 μm) as a function of applied loading cycles (lower right) for multiple statistical realizations of equiaxed polycrystalline IN 100 tructures with log normal grain size distribution. Fig. 13 Estimated distribution for fraction of grains with cracks that reach a length three...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.9781627081733
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... solidification free growth model carbide-boride model grain refinement model constitutional undercooling model thermodynamics NUCLEATION PROCESSES play a key role in the solidification of castings by controlling to a large extent the initial structure type, size scale, and spatial distribution of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... considered in some detail later. If the value of n is known, the aforementioned relation can be used to evaluate the ratio t 95 / t 5 , for example, for different materials. For plotting purposes, it is useful to take the double log of 1 / ( 1 − X ) so that the progress...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005192
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... ) + 3 H 2 ( in   Al ) The standard free energy change, Δ G o , for this reaction is extremely high: (Eq 14) Δ G o = − 979 , 100 − 719 T log 10 T + 413 T where T is the temperature in K. Inserting this value of free energy change into the van't...