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localized corrosion

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... galvanic corrosion and cause severe dissolution of the more active metal. The reverse situation—large anodic areas coupled to small cathodic areas—produces very little galvanic current. This is why imperfections or holidays in protective coatings may lead to severe galvanic corrosion in the localized...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... tentatively identified by the rapidity, severity, and localized nature and location of the corrosion. Favored locations for MIC failures include low spots where water can collect in piping, dead-end or shut-in piping, tank walls at the interface between liquid hydrocarbons and underlying water, or areas of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... copper copper alloys corrosion control ductile iron ferrous metals localized corrosion microbiologically influenced corrosion municipal wastewater systems protective coatings reinforced concrete pipes wastewater treatment THE PURPOSE OF THIS ARTICLE is to acquaint the reader with useful...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... environment is particularly corrosive to carbon steel. Corrosion rates in excess of 1270 μm (50 mils) per year have been reported ( Ref 1 ). These high corrosion rates can be attributed to the fact that saltwater makes an excellent electrolyte, a principal component of the corrosion cell. The life cycles of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
..., hydrogen peroxide), pH as low as 1, high local levels of metal ions, proteins, and lytic enzymes whose effect is unknown. Since the early 1980s there has been an increasing awareness of the development of mechanically assisted corrosion in orthopaedic and other medical device constructs. Early work in...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... thermomechanical processing. The article lists objectives of homogenization and benefits of homogenization treatments. The benefits include increased resistance to pitting corrosion, increased resistance to stress-corrosion cracking, improved ductility, and uniform precipitate distribution during subsequent aging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... the general corrosion behavior and localized corrosion behavior of transition metal-metal binary alloys, transition metal-metalloid alloys, and amorphous simple metal-transition metal-rare earth metal alloys. It concludes with a discussion on the environmentally induced fracture of glassy alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... describes the influence of the metallurgy of corrosion-resistant stainless steels on general corrosion, intergranular corrosion, localized corrosion, corrosion fatigue, and stress corrosion. carburization cast stainless steels corrosion corrosion fatigue intergranular corrosion localized...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article begins with a discussion on the environmental factors that induce corrosion in magnesium alloys. It reviews the factors that determine the severity of different forms of localized corrosion, namely, galvanic corrosion, corrosion fatigue, and stress-corrosion. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... two or more metals to form a corrosion barrier system is most widely used where perforation caused by corrosion must be avoided. Low-carbon steel and stainless steel are susceptible to localized corrosion in chloride-containing environments and may perforate rapidly. When steel is clad over the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... influences the localized nature of corrosion. The risk of localized corrosion (pitting) is high if the soil resistivity is lower than 1000 Ω·cm. The low resistivity favors the ability of macrocell current to flow between portionsexposed to different electrolytes and different levels of aeration. The redox...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... corrosion: galvanic coupling, differential aeration, alkalinity, and stray currents. The resistance of lead and lead alloys to corrosion by a wide variety of chemicals is attributed to the polarization of local anodes caused by the formation of a relatively insoluble surface film of lead corrosion products...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003969
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Oxidation High-Temperature Gaseous Corrosion (section on High-Temperature Oxidation) 230 Sulfidation High-Temperature Gaseous Corrosion (section on Sulfidation) 230 Carburization High-Temperature Gaseous Corrosion (section on Carburization) 231 Localized corrosion Pitting Pitting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... corrosion resistance. Within each family, there is a range of grades that varies in composition, corrosion resistance, and cost. Stainless steels are susceptible to several forms of localized corrosive attack. The avoidance of such localized corrosion is the focus of most of the effort involved in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
...) per year. The results of this research are shown in Fig. 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 . These are uniform corrosion rates that do not apply to localized corrosion modes, such as crevice corrosion, pitting, or local galvanic coupling. Table 1 Compositions of cast steels tested in atmospheric corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... suitable for handling these media. In addition, zirconium is susceptible to localized corrosion, such as pitting and stress-corrosion cracking in chloride solutions under oxidizing conditions. However, zirconium is not susceptible to crevice corrosion in chloride solutions, because the condition in a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... completely removed, may continue to react with the oxide layer. Thus, the base metal is continuously exposed to the atmosphere and the flux, resulting in severe local corrosion attack over time. Prevention of this type of attack includes the use of proper solvents to remove the flux, and rinsing the joint...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... microscope micrograph of localized corrosion on silicon/aluminum metal-matrix composite (MMC) after exposure to aerated 0.5 M Na 2 SO 4 at 30 °C (86 °F) for 120 h in the open-circuit condition ( Ref 41 ). Notice the formation of microcrevices by silicon particles in relief. This silicon/aluminum MMC...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... (pitting and crevice corrosion), perhaps because these forms of attack involve the local formation of hydrochloric acid. Molybdenum provides considerable strength to the fcc solid solution because of its atomic size. Optional minor element additions include iron, tungsten, and copper. The primary purpose...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
.... Saturated NH 3 solutions do not attack tin, but more dilute solutions behave like other alkaline solutions of comparable pH. Milk and milk products are usually nonreactive with tin, although a long period of stagnant contact may produce local corrosion ( Ref 41 ). Sulfide solutions and materials...