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lithium-drifted EDS detector

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... basic systems are discussed briefly: the silicon-lithium detector and the silicon-drift detector. Silicon-Lithium Detector Until recent years, the lithium-drifted silicon or Si-Li (i.e., “silly”) energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) has been the workhorse in x-ray spectroscopy because of its low...
Book Chapter

By S. Lampman
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... As these energies are measured, a histogram of the numbers of photons counted corresponding to each energy is plotted. The detector in an EDS system is a lithium-doped silicon semiconductor. X-ray photons enter the semiconductor detector crystal, where numerous electron-hole pairs are created as photons expend...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...) EDS design with electronic (Peltier) cooling has eliminated the need for the liquid nitrogen cooling of the earlier lithium-drifted silicon [Si(Li)-EDS] design. This simpler cooling scheme has enabled the development of large solid angle detectors that can be placed in close proximity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006640
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
....The simple electron configurations of these hydrogen-like atoms produce several possible terms, as illustrated by the energy-level diagram for lithium in Fig. 1 . Atomic emission lines result when the atom undergoes a spontaneous transition from one excited state to another lower-energy state. Not all...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of the radiation produced by the instrument. One limitation is that depending on the XRF detector, lighter elements such as lithium and beryllium cannot be detected, and for some detectors, the limit of detection extends to aluminum and silicon or elements with a higher atomic number. Prior to data collection...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001733
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... if adequate resolution could be achieved. The development of lithium-drifted silicon detectors and their application to x-ray detection in the mid-1960s led to a field of spectroscopic analysis that became known as energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS). Because of the tradition of the term x-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001090
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... below 2 μm. Germanium metal is also used in specially prepared germanium single crystals for gamma ray detectors. Both the older lithium-drifted detectors and the purer, more expensive intrinsic detectors, which do not have to be stored in liquid nitrogen, do an excellent job of spectral analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... into an electrical pulse with specific characteristics of amplitude and width. The lithium-doped silicon crystal detector is followed by a field effect transistor (FET) preamplifier which is maintained at cryogenic temperatures, a main amplifier, various other signal processing functions, and a multichannel analyzer...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., the emitted x-ray beam is analyzed electronically, photon by photon ( Fig. 5 ). The x-ray beam is directly into a semiconductor device (a lithium-drifted silicon crystal). As each x-ray photon enters the detector crystal, it creates numerous electron-hole pairs as it expends its energy interacting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... difference between the two electron states ( Fig. 4 ). The x-ray energy is characteristic of the element from which it was emitted. The EDS x-ray detector measures the relative abundance of emitted x-rays versus their energy. The traditional EDS detector is a lithium-drifted silicon, solid-state device...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006651
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... chamber, the amount of kinetic energy and the velocity ( v ) of an ion with mass ( m ) are given by: (Eq 1) K = Uz and (Eq 2) v = 2 Uz m The time ( t ) it takes for an ion to travel the length of the drift region ( L ) and reach the detector is given by: (Eq 3) t = L...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006630
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... polymer. Highly hydrated ions (e.g., fluoride or lithium) have the greatest difficulty entering the ion-exchange polymer and hence generally exhibit the lowest affinity for the ion-exchange material. Conversely, poorly hydrated ions tend to have easy access to the ion-exchange polymer and therefore...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., typically below the electron-optics column. Electromagnetic lenses below the electron gun focus the electron beam to a small probe at the sample surface. Scanning coils deflect the electron probe across the sample surface, and detectors housed either in the specimen chamber or in the electron-optics column...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001732
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... by complexation Organic complexing agent Metals 8-hydroxyquinoline Aluminum, calcium, cadmium, cesium, gallium, indium, potassium, lithium, magnesium, sodium, rubidium, tin, strontium, yttrium, zinc, zirconium 8-hydroxyquinoline-5 sulfonic acid Silver, aluminum, cadmium, gallium, indium, magnesium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... lower-velocity heavier ions. The balance of acceleration voltage, flight time, and spectral cycles is selected so that the slowest and heaviest ion (e.g., uranium-hydroxide ion) reaches the detector before the fastest and lightest ion (e.g., lithium) from the next pulse arrives at the detector...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... replacement. Other species of LMIS, such as lithium, aluminum, tin, and mercury, have been demonstrated but are not routinely used or commercially established. Fig. 9 Schematic of liquid metal ion source showing gallium forming the Taylor cone, from which the gallium ions are emitted A simple...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... computer system. The detector ( Fig. 8 ) is made from a chip of lithium-doped silicon. A thin gold film is used as an electrical contact, and a thin (7.5-μm-thick) beryllium window isolates the delicate detector from the microscope column. Most x-rays (with energies ≥ 1.5 keV) pass unaffected through...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627082136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... of the other gases listed. Reproducibility is ±1% of the full-scale reading, except for water vapor, for which it is ±2%. Laboratory analyzers are available with more sensitive detectors that can measure concentrations in parts per million. However, they do not have the stability that is needed in an automatic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627081788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8