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liquid-vapor metal coolants

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... metal coolants is described. Some information on safety precautions for handling liquid metals, operating circulating systems, dealing with fire and spillage, and cleaning contaminated components, are also provided. liquid-metal corrosion liquid-metal system liquid-vapor metal coolants safety...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... with the coolant being converted to vapor at a high temperature or a low pressure point. Subsequently, when temperature decreases or the pressure increases, the vapor bubbles collapse at very high rate and produce intense shock waves or jets. These waves radiate out pounding the nearby metal surface and causing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003636
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... nonembrittling coolant liquid, serve to embrittle the Zircaloy-2 nuclear fuel cladding tubes used in nuclear reactors ( Ref 5 ). Inconel vacuum seals are cracked by solid indium. These reports of brittle failure clearly indicate the importance of SMIE in industrial processes. Solid metal induced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4F
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v4F.a0007001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-450-5
... cooling in a vaporizable fluid, three different stages can occur ( Fig. 4 ). These three different cooling mechanisms can be identified through the cooling curve. Stage A, vapor blanket : In this first stage, the surface temperature of the metal is high enough to vaporize the liquid of the cooling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... shown in Fig. 2(d) , the work may be held in the vapor zone until condensation ceases and then be lowered into the boiling liquid, or the work may be lowered directly into the boiling liquid. In the boiling liquid, the violent boiling action scrubs off most of the heavy deposit, as well as metal chips...
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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... thermal conductivity, and high heat of vaporization, it is one of the most effective cooling media known. Blended with water, the water-miscible fluids provide the combined cooling and moderate lubrication required by metal removal operations conducted at high speeds and lower pressures. The water...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4F
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v4F.a0007012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-450-5
... bubbles coalesce and form larger bubbles which prevent the liquid from wetting the heated surface and form an insulating vapor blanket to heat transfer; this condition is known as maximum heat flux or critical heat flux (CHF). Fig. 1 (a) Boiling curve and (b) quench curve. Source: Ref 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
.... At these facilities, coatings are used to prevent the corrosion of metals arising from exposure to moisture and corrosive liquids. In addition, radionuclides generated within the nuclear plants have the potential to contaminate any metallic and nonmetallic surfaces they contact. Therefore, all ferrous and concrete...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... Abstract Zirconium, hafnium, and titanium are produced from ore that generally is found in a heavy beach sand containing zircon, rutile, and ilmenite. This article discusses the processing methods of these metals, namely, liquid-liquid separation process, distillation separation process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001484
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... Provide better cooling of the torch front end Reduce accumulation of metal spatter on the torch Reduce top-edge rounding of the workpiece Permit easier piercing Minimize double arcing In gas-cooled, rather than liquid-cooled, torches, it is the secondary gas that provides the cooling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... show accelerated corrosion and localized metal loss. Chromia scale evaporation and subsequent condensation/interaction with cathode electrodes have also been observed. At 1000 °C (1830 °F), significant interaction of the anode electrode with silica vapor (originating from ceramic alumina-base thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... as a coolant because an environmental system is necessary to control the gaseous traces in the water. Acid-free transformer oil is another coolant frequently used for ultrasonic fatigue tests. Liquid cryogen coolants, such as liquid nitrogen, generally are less effective due to their tendency to vaporize...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
.... They are typically made of metal carbide composites and offer low cost and high performance under the right conditions. Coating technology and materials have become a vast field of work, and the matrix of choices and combinations of physical vapor deposition (PVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) coatings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... temperature. Therefore, filler metals with high vapor pressure elements, such as zinc and cadmium, should be avoided. However, these elements are desirable when torch brazing, because they aid wetting and depress melting points. Heat-Treatment Requirements Heat-treatment requirements will also guide...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., As, Sb VIa S, Se, Te Liquid Metal Induced Embrittlement Liquid metal induced embrittlement is caused by adsorption of an embrittling material (liquid or sometimes vapor) with low solubility in the base material. Combinations of liquid metals that cause LMIE in base metals/alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... or nitrogen, or a hydrocarbon is metered into the vacuum chamber, where it reacts with the vapor from a metallic evaporant to form a metal oxide, nitride, or carbide coating. In gas evaporation, a high residual gas pressure causes the formation of ultrafine (100 nm, or 1000 Å) particles by gas phase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... equivalents compare favorably with the highest-purity inert gases available from commercial liquid inert gases, such as nitrogen, argon, or hydrogen. With suitable vacuum pumping systems, the concentration of oxygen and water vapor can be reduced to lower levels than the levels achieved in inert gas...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... 28 ). These contaminants combine in the gas phase to form alkali metal sulfates; if the temperature of the alloy is below the dewpoint of the alkali sulfate vapors and above the sulfate melting points, molten sulfate deposits are formed ( Ref 28 ). Molten sodium sulfate is the principal agent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4F
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v4F.a0007005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-450-5
...; these are described in the literature ( Ref 7 ). The one-step method involves simultaneously making and dispersing the nanoparticles in the fluid. The metallic vapor is directly condensed into nanoparticles by combining it with a flowing low-vapor pressure liquid. This method minimizes the agglomeration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... Abstract Metallographic analysis is primarily a collection of visual and imaging techniques that provide an insight into the background of a material or part and its behavior. Metallic specimens, both porous and pore-free, are opaque, and as a result, an optical examination must be performed...