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liquid-vapor metal coolants

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...-vapor metal coolants is described. Some information on safety precautions for handling liquid metals, operating circulating systems, dealing with fire and spillage, and cleaning contaminated components, are also provided. liquid-metal corrosion liquid-metal system liquid-vapor metal coolants...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... with the coolant being converted to vapor at a high temperature or a low pressure point. Subsequently, when temperature decreases or the pressure increases, the vapor bubbles collapse at very high rate and produce intense shock waves or jets. These waves radiate out pounding the nearby metal surface and causing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... thermal conductivity, and high heat of vaporization, it is one of the most effective cooling media known. Blended with water, the water-miscible fluids provide the combined cooling and moderate lubrication required by metal removal operations conducted at high speeds and lower pressures. The water...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., As, Sb VIa S, Se, Te Liquid Metal Induced Embrittlement Liquid metal induced embrittlement is caused by adsorption of an embrittling material (liquid or sometimes vapor) with low solubility in the base material. Combinations of liquid metals that cause LMIE in base metals/alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... as a coolant because an environmental system is necessary to control the gaseous traces in the water. Acid-free transformer oil is another coolant frequently used for ultrasonic fatigue tests. Liquid cryogen coolants, such as liquid nitrogen, generally are less effective due to their tendency to vaporize...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
.... They are typically made of metal carbide composites and offer low cost and high performance under the right conditions. Coating technology and materials have become a vast field of work, and the matrix of choices and combinations of physical vapor deposition (PVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) coatings...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... 28 ). These contaminants combine in the gas phase to form alkali metal sulfates; if the temperature of the alloy is below the dewpoint of the alkali sulfate vapors and above the sulfate melting points, molten sulfate deposits are formed ( Ref 28 ). Molten sodium sulfate is the principal agent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... Fig. 18 Stone hammer blow testing machine. Courtesy of Erichsen GmbH & Co. KG. Source: Ref 8 Fig. 17 Impact-resistance tester. Source: Ref 6 Fig. 19 Moisture vapor permeability cup. Courtesy of the Paul N. Gardner Company (Gardco). Source: Ref 9 Fig. 25...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... ingredients can form liquids (liquid ash corrosion) that solubilize the oxide film on tubing and react with the underlying metal to reduce the tube wall thickness. This can occur in the combustion zone (e.g., waterwall tubes) or convection pass (e.g., superheaters). Technologies to reduce NO x emissions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... near 500 °C (930 °F). This division does overlap, as described further in Ref 4 , but it is used to describe impurity-induced embrittlement. Liquid metal induced embrittlement (LMIE) is caused by adsorption of an embrittling material (liquid or sometimes vapor) with low solubility in the base...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... solution of potassium chloroaluminate saturated with zirconium and hafnium chlorides. The rising vapor flow is progressively enriched with hafnium chloride, while the stream of liquid going downward progressively loses its hafnium chloride. The solvent leaving the reboiler at a temperature of about 500...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... show accelerated corrosion and localized metal loss. Chromia scale evaporation and subsequent condensation/interaction with cathode electrodes have also been observed. At 1000 °C (1830 °F), significant interaction of the anode electrode with silica vapor (originating from ceramic alumina-base thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... in the reactor is sent directly to a steam turbine that drives an electric generator. After passing through the turbine, the steam is condensed, processed, and pumped back to the reactor as liquid water. Because the steam in the coolant loop has been generated in the reactor and entered the turbine, it contains...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... (a) is bleeding of entrapped liquid onto the sample surface. (a) and (b) Etched with 2% nital plus 4% picral Fillers and Additives Particulate fillers are often added to a mounting material to enhance specific mount properties. Hard additives, such as glass fibers, ceramic, or metallic particles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... temperature. Therefore, filler metals with high vapor pressure elements, such as zinc and cadmium, should be avoided. However, these elements are desirable when torch brazing, because they aid wetting and depress melting points. Heat-Treatment Requirements Heat-treatment requirements will also guide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001484
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... Provide better cooling of the torch front end Reduce accumulation of metal spatter on the torch Reduce top-edge rounding of the workpiece Permit easier piercing Minimize double arcing In gas-cooled, rather than liquid-cooled, torches, it is the secondary gas that provides the cooling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... to excessive oxidation of powder or wax. Therefore, part green density should be selected such that it allows vapors of the fugitive binder to escape without affecting metallurgical properties. On further heating after binder burnout, melting of metallic binder occurs, which is essential for achieving full...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003636
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... nonembrittling coolant liquid, serve to embrittle the Zircaloy-2 nuclear fuel cladding tubes used in nuclear reactors ( Ref 5 ). Inconel vacuum seals are cracked by solid indium. These reports of brittle failure clearly indicate the importance of SMIE in industrial processes. Solid metal induced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... on Titanium , June 19–24 , 2011 ( Beijing , China ), p 1868 – 1871 13. Corrosion of Titanium and Titanium Alloys , Corrosion , Vol 13 , Metals Handbook , 9th ed. , ASM International , 1987 , p 689 15. Maciejewski J. , Liquid Metal Induced Embrittlement in Fuel Line Braze...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... of particles gains the appearance and many properties of a true liquid. The fluidized bed provides a means for exchanging heat between a metal part, the solid particles, and the fluidizing gas and is viable for quenching. The potential of using the properties of the fluidized particle bed for quenching...