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liquid-surface acoustical holography

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...Abstract Abstract Acoustical holography is the extension of holography into the ultrasonic domain. The basic systems for acoustical holography are the liquid-surface type and the scanning type. This article discusses the applications for acoustical holography, including inspection of large...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... evaluation. It also discusses the types of acoustical holography, including liquid-surface acoustical holography and scanning acoustical holography. The article concludes by comparing liquid-surface and scanning systems. acoustical holography liquid-surface acoustical holography nondestructive...
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 8 Schematic of the basic acoustical and optical systems used in nondestructive inspection by liquid-surface acoustical holography More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 9 Schematic of the acoustical portion of a liquid-surface acoustical holography system that is arranged to inspect strip products. The optical portion of this system is identical to that in Fig. 8 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., liquid couplant must be applied to both sides of the assembly. Immersion Method For this method, the assembly must be immersed in a tank of water, or water squirters must be used to act as a couplant for the ultrasonic beam. There are three fundamental techniques: pulse echo ( Fig. 20c ), through...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006470
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... For example, ultrasonic waves are almost completely reflected at metal-gas interfaces. Partial reflection occurs at a metal-liquid interface or at an interface between a metal and another solid, with the specific percentage of reflected energy depending mainly on the ratios of certain acoustic properties...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...). Another disadvantage of coatings is that they may change the thermal characteristics of the surface. Cholesteric Liquid Crystals Cholesteric liquid crystals are greaselike substances that can be blended to produce compounds having color transition ranges at temperatures from −20 to 250 °C (−5...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... conductivity caused by material variations, cracks, voids, or inclusions Readily automated; moderate cost Limited to electrically conducting materials; limited penetration depth Heat exchanger tubes for wall thinning and cracks Liquid penetrant Surface openings due to cracks, porosity, seams, or folds...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... or other coupling liquid used in the standard ultrasonic inspection system approach. One method to accomplish this is with air-coupled ultrasonic testing (UT). The technique can be used very effectively on composite materials, such as laminates, honeycombs, and foams. Air-coupled ultrasound inspection has...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... of the defect and surrounding good areas for easy comparison. Fig. 8 A-, B-, and C-scan ultrasonic images Air-Coupled Ultrasonics In many instances, it is beneficial to inspect some types of composite materials without contacting the surface with water or other coupling liquid used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.9781627081900
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... can be determined by measuring its rheology. Metal oxide and other ceramics or glasses form an electrical double (Stem) layer in water and other polar liquids. As the extent of the double layer increases, so does the repulsive force between similarly charged particles. As the concentration of surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... by liquid water molecules. This unusually strong interaction is the result of the spectrographic rotational relaxation of the water molecule in the microwave region. As shown in Fig. 8 , the dielectric constant is extremely high, and the loss factor reaches a maximum at approximately 22 GHz. The permanent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... For the frequency range of 1 to 20 MHz, this results in a very bulky system, particularly if immersion in a liquid bath is added to increase etendue. A much more practical implementation of time-delay interferometry and demodulation by an optical filter is based on the use of multiple beam interference...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...: magnetic-particle inspection of ferrous metals, liquid-penetrant inspection, ultrasonic inspection, and sometimes eddy-current inspection. All these tests are used to detect surface cracks and discontinuities. Radiography is used mainly for internal examination. A photographic record of the results...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627082136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., that is, nuclei with an odd number of protons or neutrons. The nuclide of interest is generally required to be in a liquid or gelatinous state, because the time constants for solids are too short. In addition, the object cannot contain ferromagnetic materials, which would disrupt the uniform magnetic field, nor...