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liquid-solid contraction

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... or permanent mold processes. The article lists the general guidelines of geometry in casting design. It describes the three separate contractions that are a result of cooling: liquid-liquid contraction, solid-solid contraction, and liquid-solid contraction. Factors influencing the solidification sequence...
Image
Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 1 Schematic of the shrinkage of low-carbon steel. The contribution of each one of the three distinct stages of volume contraction is shown: liquid shrinkage, solidification shrinkage, and solid contraction. Source: Ref 1 More
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... contractions, and tensile stresses will build up in a restrained casting that is not free to contract. Because the grain boundaries are still covered by a thin liquid layer, the material is still quite weak, and melt feeding to compensate for the solidification shrinkage is simultaneously taking place. Various...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of atoms in the liquid and the orderly arrangement of atoms (lattice structure) in the solid state. Table 1 ( Ref 3 ) lists the solidification shrinkage of some pure metals. The most dense solids are those that have cubic close-packed (face-centered cubic and hexagonal close-packed) symmetry. Contraction...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005216
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of parameters. There are numerous causes of liquid flow and solid movement in casting processes: Flow that feeds the solidification shrinkage and the contractions of the liquid and solid during cooling Buoyancy-induced flows due to thermal and solutal gradients in the liquid. The thermal...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., “C” and “D,” are buoyant, creating bubble trails. Most films on liquid metals are oxides (although nitrides and carbon films are also common), and most are solid at the temperature of the melt. When entrained, the dry surfaces of the films fold inward, necessarily facing each other and making...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... capacity of silicon atoms revives aluminum atoms as their fluid life begins to wane. Solidification Shrinkage The three distinct stages of shrinkage as molten metals solidify are liquid shrinkage, liquid-to-solid shrinkage, and patternmaker's contraction. Liquid Shrinkage Liquid shrinkage...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... superheat and cools to its solidification temperature. Solidification shrinkage: The metal freezes, changing from a liquid to a higher-density solid. For pure metals, this contraction will occur at a single temperature, but for noneutectic alloys, it will take place over some temperature range...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Most solidification processes involve alloys that solidify with a complex dendritic interface within individual grains that occupy a transient solid-plus-liquid region, called the mushy zone. There are phase-field models and interface-tracking models for simulating the development of the dendritic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
.... This line slopes upward away from the pressure axis. The typical metal contracts on freezing. Hence, applying an increased pressure to the liquid can cause the metal to become solid, experiencing at the same time an abrupt contraction in volume. Had the metal bismuth, which expands on freezing, been...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...-liquid contraction Liquid-solid contraction Solid-solid contraction As a rough guide, molten steel contracts 0.9% per 55 °C (100 °F) as it cools from the pouring temperature (usually 110 to 165 °C, or 200 to 300 °F, above its melting point) to the solidification temperature. It then undergoes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... transfer and fluid flow during freezing, so these phenomena must be understood to enable prediction of metal quality. The solid-liquid phase change in casting processes is driven primarily by the extraction of heat from the liquid melt, determined by the temperature difference between the liquid metal...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of the Navier-Stokes equations that couple momentum and mass conservation. The solution of these equations is coupled to the heat and species transport because it requires an accounting of the momentum transfer between the solid and liquid phases due to the dependence of buoyancy and thermophysical properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006496
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... during freezing, because it determines the castability of the alloy. Two detailed discussions of the solidification of metals can be found in Ref 1 (a more practical focus) and Ref 2 (directed primarily to the scientist). Dendritic Solidification The liquid-to-solid transformation involves...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003594
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract This article examines a type of corrosion that occurs when solids (primarily metals) are exposed to liquid metal environments. It describes the principle mechanisms of liquid metal corrosion, including dissolution, impurity and interstitial reactions, alloying, and compound reduction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... Abstract In cast iron, residual stresses normally arise due to hindered thermal contraction, meaning that they are associated with the presence of constraints that prevent the natural, free volumetric variation of the material upon solid-state cooling. This article explains their mechanism...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... system imperfections metals risering system solidification SOLIDIFICATION is the transformation of liquid to solid. During this process, atoms change their arrangement from randomized short-range order to regular positions on a crystallographic lattice. In doing so, they give up energy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... flooded with LN 2 so the liquid level rises to and eventually covers the payload. Both versions suffer from a serious weakness arising from the effects of fundamental physics. First, the temperature gradient above a pool of LN 2 is very steep. Second, the rate of heat transport between warm solid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... a close-packed crystal structure. These materials, such as AlPO 4 , orthorhombic Sc 2 (MoO 4 ) 3 , ScF 3 , cubic ZrW 2 O 8 , and ZrV 2 O 7 , contract when heated and expand when cooled. The temperature range of the negative CTE may be very narrow, such as in liquid water below 4 °C (40 °F). The mechanisms...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... reaction diffusion rate multicomponent systems THE TERM PERITECTIC , in the science of heterogeneous equilibria, may be used to define all reactions in which two or more phases (gas, liquid, solid) react at a defined temperature, T p , to form a new phase that is stable below T p . Usually...