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liquid penetrant inspection

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006440
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Liquid penetrant inspection is a nondestructive method of revealing discontinuities that are open to the surfaces of solid and essentially nonporous materials. This article provides information on physical principles, evolution, description, and processing parameters of liquid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006467
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... of flaws encountered in the inspection of steel bars, including porosity, inclusions, scabs, cracks, seams, and laps. Inspection methods, such as magnetic-particle inspection. liquid penetrant inspection, ultrasonic inspection, and electromagnetic inspection, of steel bars are also described. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... materials being examined. Terahertz can penetrate many common gases, nonpolar liquids, and nonmetallic solids, including air, plastics, gasoline, paper, plant material, clothing, fatty tissue, and composites. Because they lie in a frequency region in which molecular resonances dominate, the absorption...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...) … … … … … … X … … X X X Circumferential crack … … … X … … X X X X X X Longitudinal crack … … … X … … X X … X X X VT = visual testing; LC = laser or camera inspection; LP = liquid penetrant; EC = eddy current; PEC = pulsed eddy current; MP = magnetic particle; FL = flux...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., which basically consist of a strong, flexible insertion tube, a CCD or CMOS camera chip (with magnification) at the distal end, and a high-resolution liquid crystal display at the ocular end ( Fig. 17 ). The liquid crystal display enables the inspector to see the image captured by the cameras, which is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Relating Ultrasonic Scattering Measurements through Liquid-Solid Interfaces to Unbounded Medium Scattering Amplitudes , J. Acoust. Soc. Am. , Vol 74 , 1983 , p 1279 10.1121/1.390045 15. Thompson R.B. and Gray T.A. , Analytical Diffraction Corrections to Ultrasonic Scattering...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006476
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Liquid Penetrant Examination for General Industry,” E165, ASTM International 3. “Standard Guide for Magnetic Particle Testing,” E709, ASTM International 4. Tiitto K.M. and Pro R.J. , Detection of Heat Treat Defects and Grinding Burns by Measurement of Barkhausen Noise...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006468
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... and generally indicates its location, size, shape, and extent. Magnetic particles are applied over a surface as dry particles, or as wet particles in a liquid carrier such as water or oil. Ferromagnetic materials include most of the iron, nickel, and cobalt alloys. Many of the precipitation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006470
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... along an interface bounded on one side by the strong elastic forces of a solid and on the other side by the practically negligible elastic forces between gas molecules. Surface waves leak energy into liquid and couplants, and use of such leaky waves forms a special class of inspections ( Ref 1 ). In...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... perform the test, liquid couplant must be applied to both sides of the assembly. For this method, the assembly must be immersed in a tank of water, or water squirters must be used to act as a couplant for the ultrasonic beam. There are three fundamental techniques: pulse echo ( Fig. 20c ), through...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... the insulation for an inspection using ultrasonics; it costs much less to mount a limited number of AE waveguides, leaving practically all the insulation in place. For liquid-filled vessels, such as above-ground storage tanks, the condition of the floor can be assessed by a short period of monitoring...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Acoustical holography is the extension of holography into the ultrasonic domain. The basic systems for acoustical holography are the liquid-surface type and the scanning type. This article discusses the applications for acoustical holography, including inspection of large composite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... orientation, and the expected defect types (porosity, slag, weld cap, root or toe cracks, incomplete penetration, and lack of side-wall fusion). The base material properties, combined with loads/stressors expected to be applied to the weld and required life, will then define acceptance criteria and inspection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006438
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... more than surrounding regions. Detection of surface-breaking cracks Acoustic energy is mode and shape sensitive so nonuniform in heating effect. Also no crack depth information Same as thermal/IR above Mostly metals and composites Liquid penetrant PT Liquid penetrant fluid preferentially...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
..., or number of these anomalies exceeds the maximum allowed by the purchaser. The nondestructive methods include visual inspection, dimensional inspection, liquid penetrant inspection, magnetic-particle inspection, eddy-current inspection, radiographic inspection, ultrasonic inspection, resonant testing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... surfaces by removing precariously attached particles from the powder bed to free surfaces can induce compressive surface stresses, which tend to close cracks for which liquid penetrant inspects. Liquid penetrant testing is thus unlikely to have wide application in examination for surface discontinuities in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... visible for viewing. All of the terms and techniques in the following discussion refer to radiological inspection with penetrating electromagnetic radiation in the form of x-rays or γ-rays. The general principles of radiography, including the equipment used, materials interaction with radiation, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... 3. Askar'yan G.A. , Prokhorov A.M. , Chanturya G.F. , and Shipulo M.P. , The Effect of a Laser Beam in a Liquid , Sov. Phys. JETP , Vol 17 , 1963 , p 1463 4. Scruby C.B. and Drain L.E. , Laser-Ultrasonics: Techniques and Applications , Adam Hilger...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006462
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... nondestructive inspections (NDI). Those most widely used are visual inspection, liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, eddy current, ultrasonic, and radiographic methods. Table 2 (also see Ref 11 ) provides a brief definition of these methods and their uses and limitations. Considerably more detail on these and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... measurements FFT, fast Fourier transformation Even in the simplest PM part geometry—a solid circular cylinder—uniaxial die compaction results in a density distribution in the part if it is over 25 mm (1 in.) in length. Powders do not behave like liquids, and the greater the distance the powder...