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liquid junction potential

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Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 4 Schematic of an electrochemical cell with liquid junction potential. P, interface; V, voltmeter More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003592
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... It describes a three-electrode approach that compensates for measurement error stemming from nonequilibrium conditions. It also examines electrode materials and behaviors and offers insights on selection and operating conditions. corrosion rate electrode potential liquid junction potential potential...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003799
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... be (1.000+0.241)=+1.241 V versus SHE. An electrode potential of −1.000 versus SCE would be (−1.000+0.241)=−0.759 V versus SHE. (a) E ′ is the standard potential for the half cell corrected for the concentration of the ions. (b) E ′′ also includes the liquid junction potentials for a saturated KCl...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001740
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... , 1982 , p 1976 – 1980 10.1021/ac00249a014 21. Covington A.K. and Rebelo M.J.F. , Reference Electrodes and Liquid Junction Effects in Ion-Selective Electrode Potentiometry , Ion-Sel. Electrode Rev. , Vol 5 , 1983 , p 93 – 128 10.1016/B978-0-08-031492-1.50006-1 22...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... or permanent mold processes. The article lists the general guidelines of geometry in casting design. It describes the three separate contractions that are a result of cooling: liquid-liquid contraction, solid-solid contraction, and liquid-solid contraction. Factors influencing the solidification sequence...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003709
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., and for solid phases in equilibrium with the solution. The two vertical lines represent a cell where the liquid junction potential between two aqueous solutions (aq) has been eliminated or is assumed to be small. Liquid junction potentials are often small by comparison to the cell potential. The cell...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... is a simple and basic turn, providing no extra volume in the system that can allow surface turbulence. When properly designed and made, this sprue/runner junction does not contribute a single bubble to the downstream flow. Potential solutions to the central problem of the avoidance of entrainment defects...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... with liquified gases, either at or below atmospheric pressure. The two most common of these coolants are liquid helium and liquid nitrogen (see Table 2 ). Properties of selected cryogenic cooling fluids Table 2 Properties of selected cryogenic cooling fluids Fluid T b at 760 mm Hg, K Heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... for all varieties of cast iron and all varieties of molds. It discusses the general conditions for the filling system layout, including the downsprue, sprue/runner junction, and runner. Both gray cast iron and compacted graphite iron exhibit a growth of graphite in direct contact with the liquid metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... dissimilar wires joined at one end, forming a measuring, or hot, junction. The other end, which is connected to the copper wire of the measuring instrument circuitry, is called the reference, or cold, junction. The electrical signal output in millivolts is proportional to the difference in temperature...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003158
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... the ends of a pair of dissimilar metal wires is deduced from a measurement of the difference in the thermo-electric potentials developed alone the wires. The presence of a temperature gradient in a metal or alloy leads to an electric potential gradient being set up along the temperature gradient...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract Steel storage tanks are the primary means for storing large volumes of liquids and gaseous products. The stored fluid could be water, but it could also be volatile, corrosive, and flammable fluid requiring special precautions for storage as well. Corrosion is generally worst where...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... (especially common in investment castings) have the potential for the introduction of air into the stream or the uncontrolled escape of liquid into other parts of the mold cavity. At one time, it was mandatory that each sprue have a sprue well at its base. The well was thought to facilitate the turn...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., voltammetric (amperometric), and coulometric. Potentiometry is the most commonly used of the electrochemical techniques and involves the measurement of a potential (voltage) generated by a cell under essentially equilibrium conditions. Coulometry involves the determination of the weight of metal deposited...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
....) Temperature Types of environments: gaseous, liquid, liquid metal, etc. Partial pressure of damaging species in gaseous environments Concentration of damaging species in aqueous or other liquid environments Electrical potential pH Viscosity of the environment Coatings, inhibitors, etc. Maximum stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003718
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... The potential of a corroding alclad. Composite wrought product comprising material. an aluminum alloy core having on one or both absorption. A process in which uid molecules surfaces a metallurgically bonded aluminum are taken up by a liquid or solid and distrib- activity. A measure of the chemical potential...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.9781627081825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003581
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... to some ion in the melt and can therefore be used to measure its activity. Reference Electrodes Historically, the oldest reference electrodes are those that use a liquid junction (LJ) between the electrode compartment and the melt under study. The Ag/AgCl electrode is of this type, and its half...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... installations, but in addition, they have requirements specific to the use of high-temperature energy sources and potentially explosive gases and liquids used as aids to chemical processing. Because these heat treating processes require careful control for optimum technical results as well as for safety...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Casting offers a great amount of component design flexibility. This article discusses six casting design parameters that drive the geometry of casting design from a process standpoint. It provides information on the design of junctions and addresses considerations of secondary...