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liquid catalysts

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Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005354
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...Abstract Abstract No-bake sand molds are based on the curing of inorganic or organic binders with either gaseous catalysts or liquid catalysts. This article reviews the major aspects of no-bake sand bonding in terms of coremaking, molding methods, and sand processing. It discusses the points...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...Abstract Abstract This article focuses on epoxy because this resin category has widespread use and because it is tested using quality control measures typical of most resin systems. It explains that a typical resin system will consist of one or more epoxy resins, a curing agent, and a catalyst...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... ) and fayalite ( Fig. 6 ). Crystal structure of olivine is much more complex than other specialty sands. Inclusions of magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ), spinel (magnesium, iron, zinc, manganese, aluminates), apatite (Ca 5 (PO 4 ·CO 3 ) 3 ), liquids, or gases are common. Movable bubbles are found at times. Olivine alters...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... binders can be heat, catalyst liquid, or gases. The systems are classified in two, based on the basic mechanism as self-hardening or trigger hardened. Self-hardening mixtures (also known as no bake and self-set) use a hardening chemical that is mixed with the sand and binder. The binder and hardener start...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... are not discussed in this article. Self-Setting Systems Self-setting, or no-bake, chemically bonded systems are a mixture of sand, bonding agent, and a liquid hardening chemical (catalyst). They are used primarily for mold-making purposes in larger iron castings, but the production of simple, medium-sized...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... for both coremaking and molding, but they are perhaps more widely used for coremaking than molding. Thus, the term cold box often is used to refer to vapor-cured no-bake systems. The no-bake methods also include self setting with liquid catalysts (see the preceding article, “No-Bake Sand Molding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... blocked acidic compounds, is a typical choice. Hetero- or homopolar-blocked acids are latent catalysts, which require the baking cycle to become effective. A premature reaction between polyester and melamine resin at RT in the liquid paint is therefore effectively suppressed, significantly extending...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003172
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... and formed around a pattern or placed in a core box. The resin may be cured by heat, or it may be cured by the setting of the resin. To accelerate the curing of the resin, catalysts may be added, either in solid, liquid, or gaseous form. No-Bake Processes The term “no-bake” generally refers to all...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
...) Fundamentals of Gases Gas molecules are somewhat widely separated, and they move about unceasingly in the space in which they are contained. Gases differ from liquids in two respects; gases are highly compressible, and they fill any closed vessel in which they are placed. Gases resemble liquids...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... the carrier by adjusting the pH of the liquid impregnating solution. The resulting catalyst is collected by filtration. Metal oxides supported on zeolites, such as CuO/ZSM-5, can be prepared using this method. Eggshell Impregnation Some catalytic reactions are conducted under conditions in which only...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003036
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... to maleic or fumaric anhydride The chemical reaction that causes the hardening of the liquid mixture is a free-radical polymerization initiated by organic peroxides. The most common catalysts used are methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) and benzoyl peroxide (BPO). In order to work at room temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... , is produced for the most part by steam-reforming natural gas and light hydrocarbon liquids over a catalyst. Metallurgical hydrogen is refined from excess hydrogen-gas feed stocks from petrochemical steam-reforming plants. The gas supplier removes hydrocarbons and moisture from the raw gas stream and liquefies...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... steps or in the finished parts. Catalyst The catalyst initiates the chemical reaction (copolymerization) of the unsaturated polyester and monomer ingredients from a liquid to a solid state. This is the primary purpose of a catalyst. Heat from the mold causes the catalyst to decompose, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003367
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... use in 1999 was approximately 400,000 lb ( Ref 4 ). Cyanate Ester Chemistry Cyanate ester resins are available as low-melt crystalline powder, liquid, and semisolid difunctional monomers and prepolymers of various molecular weights. Higher molecular weight resins are also available as solid...
Book Chapter

By Mark C. Williams
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003602
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., is fed continuously to the cathode (positive electrode) compartment. Encouraged by a catalyst, the hydrogen atom oxidizes into a proton (H + ) and an electron ( e − ) that take different paths to the cathode. The proton passes through the electrolyte. The electrons create a separate current that can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... O 2 + 2 H + + 2 e − → H 2 O     ( cathode ) The PAFCs most commonly use platinum or platinum alloy catalysts for electrode reactions. Highly dispersed catalysts are supported on carbon substrates that also act as a gas diffusion layer. The liquid electrolyte...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001726
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
..., alloys, and semiconductors ( Table 1 ); glasses and ceramics ( Table 2 ); and minerals, ores, and other inorganic compounds ( Table 3 ) Inorganic liquids and solutions( Table 4 ) Inorganic gases ( Table 5 ) Organic solids ( Table 6 ) Organic liquids and solutions ( Table 7 ) Organic gases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... in Fig. 4 . Fig. 4 Structure of formaldehyde The nature of the resin is greatly dependent on the type of catalyst and the mole ratio of the reactants. The four major reaction steps in phenolic resin chemistry are as follows: The formation of addition compounds from the reaction...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003370
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
.... Additional information on additives provided in Ref 1 . Catalyst The catalyst initiates the chemical reaction (copolymerization) of the unsaturated polyester and monomer ingredients from a liquid to a solid state. This is the primary purpose of a catalyst. Heat from the mold causes the catalyst...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... it possible to achieve “high-build” (≥2 μm/20 min) electroless copper solutions, and it continues to have wide use even today. Because quadrol and its analogs are liquids, totally miscible with water, they are not easily removed from the waste solution, and hence they are resistant to many conventional waste...