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linear elastic fracture mechanics

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... mechanics analysis linear elastic fracture mechanics analysis stress analysis equations stress analysis THE STRESSES acting on a component may cause unacceptable deformation, cracking, or fracture. By definition, after a stress-related failure has occurred, it is a given that the stresses reached a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Engineering component and structure failures manifest through many mechanisms but are most often associated with fracture in one or more forms. This article introduces the subject of fractography and aspects of how it is used in failure analysis. The basic types of fracture processes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... tensile straining until the temperature was decreased to 119 K, but then the number of grains having twins increased rapidly, reaching 60% at 83 K ( Ref 23 ). Additionally, a not-quite-linear correlation was found between the lower yield strength and the number of grains containing twins, leading to the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
...-element analytical techniques have advanced in four decades from simple linear structures to nonlinear rigid-plastic analysis to elastic-plastic analysis of anisotropic, work-hardening, strain-rate-sensitive materials in complex three-dimensional, large-strain processes. As a result, they are capable of...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... unfurling on mechanical properties of the solidified cast metal. It provides a discussion on the mechanisms of unfurling to determine the casting properties of the metals. These include gas precipitation, shrinkage, linear contraction, dendrite pushing, and nucleation and growth of intermetallics. The...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... compressive) stress. Any other combination is known as a fluctuating stress. The linear-elastic fracture-mechanics approach is based on an analytical procedure that relates the stress-field magnitude and distribution in the vicinity of a crack tip to the nominal stress applied to the structure; to the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005431
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... method (BEM). Each has different suitability for different types of problems. For example, the FDM is often adopted in fluid mechanics but is seldom used in solid and structural mechanics. Finite-element methods are the most common for linear and nonlinear continuum mechanics, although the BEM has...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article reviews the various types of mechanical testing methods, including hardness testing; tension testing; compression testing; dynamic fracture testing; fracture toughness testing; fatigue life testing; fatigue crack growth testing; and creep, stress-rupture, and stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... will result in a straight line if Eq 17 is satisfied by the data ( Fig. 6 ). The linear slope of this line is n , and K is the true stress at ε=1.0 (corresponds to q =0.63). As shown in Fig. 7 , the strain-hardening exponent may have values from n =0 (perfectly plastic solid) to n =1 (elastic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.9781627081764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... structures transition to the amorphous phase. The operating principle is that in these transitions, a proportionally larger change takes place in the mechanical properties of a polymer than in its specific heat. A generic DMA setup ( Fig. 1 ) consists of a displacement sensor such as a linear variable...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Shear modulus versus temperature for crystalline isotactic polystyrene (PS), two linear atactic PS materials (A and B) with different molecular weights, and lightly cross-linked atactic PS. Source: Ref 4 Mechanical properties are also affected by molecular weight. Most material manufacturers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... substantial σ phase. All 240× Examination of properly polished specimens without etching often presents a clearer picture of the extent of fracture because etched microstructural detail does not obscure the crack detail. Etching presents other dark linear features, such as grain boundaries, that may be...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... determined. A difference of more than 5% in strain readings in the linear portion of the stress-strain curve is an indication of excessive bending. Many polymeric-matrix composites absorb moisture, which can cause reductions in mechanical properties. Thus, care must be exercised to maintain such specimens...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... general aspects of fracture modes and mechanisms. The article briefly reviews some mechanistic aspects of ductile and brittle crack propagation, including discussion on mixed-mode cracking. Factors associated with overload failures are discussed, and, where appropriate, preventive steps for reducing the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... boiler steels. Source: Ref 14 Creep damage of metallic materials in the power-generation industry can be monitored through in situ Vickers hardness tests. For example, in chromium-molybdenum steels, an almost linear decrease in hardness has been observed during the secondary creep stage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., the maximum tensile stress occurs at the fixed end. When this stress reaches the yield strength, the load-deflection curve ceases to be linear. The load that marks this deviation from linearity is denoted by P v , so that the yield stress is ( Ref 7 ): (Eq 7) σ y = 6   L P v b...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of material- and environmental-specific constants a and b ; the linear elastic stress-intensity factor range, Δ K ; an activation energy, Q e ; and the temperature, T . Equation 12 estimates the fatigue crack growth per cycle, da / dN , as a function of material- and environmental-specific...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... failure analysis fatigue fracture fatigue life fracture control concepts fracture mechanics linear-elastic fracture mechanics A FAILURE INVESTIGATION can have various objectives, such as assigning blame for the failure, or pin-pointing a lax supplier or an individual or department...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... ″ where n is the strain-hardening exponent, and K is the strength coefficient. A log-log plot of true stress and true strain up to maximum load results in a straight line if Eq 22 is satisfied by the data ( Fig. 7 ). The linear slope of this line is n , and K is the true stress at ε = 1.0...